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Flashcards in Small animal MSK disease 4 Deck (100)
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What does onychosytrophy mean?

Abnormal claw growth


What does onychomadesis mean?

Sloughing of claws


What does onychomalacia mean?

Softening of claws


What does onychorrhexis mean?

Longitudinal splitting of claws


What does onychogryphosis mean?

Hypertrophy and abnormal curvature of claws


What does onychoschizia mean?

Splitting +/- lamination of claws, usually from distal end


Outline the approach to claw/law fold disease in small animals

- History: pattern of claw disease
- General physical examination
- Dermatological examination (lesions elsewhere on body etc.)
- Dermatological tests e.g. cytology, bacterial culture, fungal culture, skin scrapes
- Biopsy may be required


List possible disease of the claws/claw fold of small animals

- Traumatic
- Ingrowing claws
- Infection
- Immune mediated
- Neoplasia
- Nutritional/metabolic
- Idiopathic


Outline the treatment of torn/avulsed claws in small animals

- Remove loose claws with artery forceps
- Keep clean and protected in dressing for 2-3 days, prevent licking
- Systemic antibiotics
- Monitor regrowth for onychodystrophy
- Consider cause for breakage - obesity, poor conformation or bad luck?


When do in-growing claws most commonly occur?

- Dew claws
- Elderly cats
- Cats with polydactyly


Outline the treatment of in-growing claws

- Trim and clean
- Antibiotics if infected


Outline the treatment of bacterial infection of the claws/claw fold in small animals

- Remove loose claw plates (if present) under GA
- Treat with extended course of antibiotics, protect as for traumatic claw


Describe the common appearance of claws/claw fold affected by Malassezia

- Claws may show brown staining as direct result of Malassezia
- Rarely lame


Outline the role and treatment of dermatophytosis in claw/claw fold disease in small animals

- Rare
- Leads to onychodystrophy
- Treat with systemic antifungals until claws are normal (many weeks)


Give examples of immune mediated disease of the claw/claw fold

- Cutaneous lupus
- Vasculitits
- Drug reaction
- Pemphigus foliaceous
- Symmetrical lupoid onychodystrophy


Describe the presentation of symmetrical lupoid onychodystrophy

- Onychomadesis with exudate under claw (secondary infection)
- Often gradual progression over several months to involve multiple/all claws
- Marked pain when slough


Outline the treatment of ILSO

- Remove loose claws
- Treat using oral EFAs, tetracycline, niacinamide, severe cases with glucocorticoids, ciclosporin
- Radical total P3 amputation is unresponsive


Which breed are predisposed to ILSO?



Which breeds are predisposed to squamous cell carcinoma of the claw fold?

Large black dogs e.g. Labradors, Giant Schnauzer


Outline the pathology of SCC of the clawfold in dogs

- +/- multiple digits involved over several years
- Often bone lysis of underlying bone
- 30% metastasise to local LN


Outline the pathology seen with claw fold melanoma in small animals

- Pedal/digital melanomas usually malignant, spread to LNs, lungs esp.
- Stage fully (local LN excision, thoracic radiography, blood screen)
- 50% die from distant mets within a year, must stage before removal


Outline the general treatment for neoplasia of the claw fold in small animals

Amputation of digit at MCP joint


Which muscles are affected by masticatory muscle myositis?

- Temporalis
- Masseter
- Medial and lateral pterygoid
- Rostral portions of digastricus muscles


Which muscles are spared in masticatory muscle myositis?

- Extraocular
- Oesophageal
- Limb muscles


What is trismus?

Restricted jaw movement


Outline the clinical characteristics of the acute phase of masticatory muscle myositis

- Swelling of masticatory muscles
- Restricted jaw movement
- Inability to open jaw, even under GA
- Painful muscles of head and mouth
- Reluctance to eat, depression
- Pyrexia, submandibular, prescapular lymphadenopathy, tonsilitis variably present


Outline the histopathological characteristics of masticatory muscle myositis in the acute phase

- Multifocal and variable degrees of inflammatory cellular infiltration
- Fibrosis not usually observed
- Staining to demonstrate antibody bound to type 2M muscle fibres


Which parameters in biochemistry is commonly raised in the acute phase of MMM?

Creatinine kinase, AST
+/- Globulin


Outline the clinical characteristics of the chronic phase of MMM

- Progressive atrophy of the masticatory muscle group
- Enophthalmos
- Non-painful


Outline the histopathological characteristics of masticatory muscle myositis in the chronic phase

- Myofibre loss (atrophy)
- Interstitial fibrosis may be extensive
- Regenerative features of muscular fibres can be present