Flashcards in Small animal MSK disease 4 Deck (100)
What does onychosytrophy mean?
Abnormal claw growth
What does onychomadesis mean?
Sloughing of claws
What does onychomalacia mean?
Softening of claws
What does onychorrhexis mean?
Longitudinal splitting of claws
What does onychogryphosis mean?
Hypertrophy and abnormal curvature of claws
What does onychoschizia mean?
Splitting +/- lamination of claws, usually from distal end
Outline the approach to claw/law fold disease in small animals
- History: pattern of claw disease
- General physical examination
- Dermatological examination (lesions elsewhere on body etc.)
- Dermatological tests e.g. cytology, bacterial culture, fungal culture, skin scrapes
- Biopsy may be required
List possible disease of the claws/claw fold of small animals
- Ingrowing claws
- Immune mediated
Outline the treatment of torn/avulsed claws in small animals
- Remove loose claws with artery forceps
- Keep clean and protected in dressing for 2-3 days, prevent licking
- Systemic antibiotics
- Monitor regrowth for onychodystrophy
- Consider cause for breakage - obesity, poor conformation or bad luck?
When do in-growing claws most commonly occur?
- Dew claws
- Elderly cats
- Cats with polydactyly
Outline the treatment of in-growing claws
- Trim and clean
- Antibiotics if infected
Outline the treatment of bacterial infection of the claws/claw fold in small animals
- Remove loose claw plates (if present) under GA
- Treat with extended course of antibiotics, protect as for traumatic claw
Describe the common appearance of claws/claw fold affected by Malassezia
- Claws may show brown staining as direct result of Malassezia
- Rarely lame
Outline the role and treatment of dermatophytosis in claw/claw fold disease in small animals
- Leads to onychodystrophy
- Treat with systemic antifungals until claws are normal (many weeks)
Give examples of immune mediated disease of the claw/claw fold
- Cutaneous lupus
- Drug reaction
- Pemphigus foliaceous
- Symmetrical lupoid onychodystrophy
Describe the presentation of symmetrical lupoid onychodystrophy
- Onychomadesis with exudate under claw (secondary infection)
- Often gradual progression over several months to involve multiple/all claws
- Marked pain when slough
Outline the treatment of ILSO
- Remove loose claws
- Treat using oral EFAs, tetracycline, niacinamide, severe cases with glucocorticoids, ciclosporin
- Radical total P3 amputation is unresponsive
Which breed are predisposed to ILSO?
Which breeds are predisposed to squamous cell carcinoma of the claw fold?
Large black dogs e.g. Labradors, Giant Schnauzer
Outline the pathology of SCC of the clawfold in dogs
- +/- multiple digits involved over several years
- Often bone lysis of underlying bone
- 30% metastasise to local LN
Outline the pathology seen with claw fold melanoma in small animals
- Pedal/digital melanomas usually malignant, spread to LNs, lungs esp.
- Stage fully (local LN excision, thoracic radiography, blood screen)
- 50% die from distant mets within a year, must stage before removal
Outline the general treatment for neoplasia of the claw fold in small animals
Amputation of digit at MCP joint
Which muscles are affected by masticatory muscle myositis?
- Medial and lateral pterygoid
- Rostral portions of digastricus muscles
Which muscles are spared in masticatory muscle myositis?
- Limb muscles
What is trismus?
Restricted jaw movement
Outline the clinical characteristics of the acute phase of masticatory muscle myositis
- Swelling of masticatory muscles
- Restricted jaw movement
- Inability to open jaw, even under GA
- Painful muscles of head and mouth
- Reluctance to eat, depression
- Pyrexia, submandibular, prescapular lymphadenopathy, tonsilitis variably present
Outline the histopathological characteristics of masticatory muscle myositis in the acute phase
- Multifocal and variable degrees of inflammatory cellular infiltration
- Fibrosis not usually observed
- Staining to demonstrate antibody bound to type 2M muscle fibres
Which parameters in biochemistry is commonly raised in the acute phase of MMM?
Creatinine kinase, AST
Outline the clinical characteristics of the chronic phase of MMM
- Progressive atrophy of the masticatory muscle group