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Flashcards in Farm animal MSK disease 3 Deck (100)
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Discuss the prognosis for vertical fissures in cattle

- Generally good
- Some can be difficult to treat, require multiple trims before wall normal
- If periople permanently damaged, leading to continued production of defective wall, long term prognosis is poor


Outline the aetiology of horizontal fissures in cattle

- Interruption of wall horn production at coronary band
- Any severe toxic condition e.g. mastitis, metritis, acute acidosis
- Will be complete circumferential fissure around all 8 claws


Outline the clinical signs and presentation of horizontal fissures in cattle

- Often asymptomatic unless fissure and underlying laminae infected or granuloma produced
- if get production of thimbles of wall and sole on all claws, movement of this relative to rest of wall results in lameness, infection and granulomas


Outline the treatment of horizontal fissures in cattle

- If infection present, open crack and drain abscess
- Resect granulation tissue
- Often all claws affected so no blocks


Discuss the prognosis for horizontal fissures in cattle

- prognosis varies depending on severity of disease
- Sometimes thimbles grow out and are shed asymptomatically, other times may have to cull affected animal


Explain the difference between horizontal fissures and hardship lines in cattle

- Hardship lines = incomplete disruption of horn production, producing thin wall


Discuss the aetiology of fracture of the distal phalanx in cattle

- Uncommon
- Trauma during bulling (slipping off cows) or slipping off steps
- Flouride poisoning (herd "outbreaks")


Describe the clinical signs of fracture of the distal phalanx in cattle

- Acute onset severe lameness, no other obvious clinical signs
- If medial claw of front feet affected, animals stand with forelimbs crossed


What is required for definitive diagnosis of distal phalanx fracture in cattle?



Discuss the treatment and prognosis for fracture of the distal phalanx in cattle

- Distal phalanx well splinted by hoof capsule
- Only need to apply block to unaffected claw
- Prognosis good unless complicating factors e.g. fluoride poisoning


Outline the aetiology of interdigital skin hyperplasia in cattle

- Chronic irritation of interdigital area e.g. chronic infection or impaction
- Foul in the foot may predispose to condition later in llife
- Hereditary component suggested


Outline the clinical signs of interdigital hyperplasia in cattle

- Skin hyperplasia often asymptomatic, noted during routine foot trimming or inspection
- Lame if overgrowth becomes infected or pinched during movement


Outline the treatment and prognosis for interdigital skin hyperplasia in cattle

- If infected, treating infection treats lameness
- If pinching, dish out horn from interdigital area
- In severe cases or where corrective trimming ineffective, surgically remove hyperplastic skin under local or IVRA
- Good prognosis


How may interdigital skin hyperplasia be prevented

Ensure underfoot conditions are optimal during the winter housing period


Outline the aetiology of suprascapular paralysis in cattle

- C6 and C7 outflow innervates supraspinatus and infraspinatus
- Usually damaged by trauma to prescapular or scapular area


What would the following clinical signs be most suggestive of in a cow?
Thoracic limb advanced normally but abducts when weight bearing, shortened stride, atrophy of infra and supraspinatus

Suprascapular paralysis (NB atrophy can be complete)


Outline the aetiology of radial paralysis in the cow

- Excessive traction on limb e.g. calving, trauma to scapulohumeral area, prolonged recumbency
- C7, 8 and T1 give motor innervation to carpus and digit extensors, and sensation to lateral aspect of limb


What would the following signs be most suggestive of in a cow?
Forelimb held in flexion with elbow dropped, evidence of scuffing on the dorsal hoof wall

Radial paralysis


What may be seen if only the distal portion of the radial nerve is damaged in a cow?

Innervation to elbow normal, but carpus and fetlock are held in flexion


Describe the aetiology of brachial plexus paralysis in cattle

- Excessive traction of limb e.g. calving, traumatic abduction, prolonged lateral recumbency
- C5 to T2 outflow = radial, median and ulnar nerves


List your differentials for the following clinical signs in a cow:
- Flaccid left forelimb
- Non-weight bearing
- Hoof dragging on the foor

- Brachial plexus paralysis (most likely if no other signs)
- Scapulohumeral luxation
- Fracture (e.g. humeral)


Describe the aetiology of obturator paralysis in a cow

- Damaged during dystocia usually, often due to foetal oversize
- L4, 5 and 6 outflow make up obturator nerve, innervates adductor muscles of HL


Describe the aetiology of femoral paralysis in a cow

- Usually damaged in calves during dystocia caused by hiplock
- Calf's limbhyperextended during traction
- Femoral nerve composed of outflow from L4, 5 and 6, innervates iliopsoas and quads


What are the following signs indicative of in a calf?
- HL virtually non-weight bearing
- Stifle cannot be extended
- Limb hangs in flexed position with digits resting on floor

Femoral nerve paralysis


Describe the aetiology of sciatic paralysis in cattle

- Commonly injured during dystocia caused by foetal oversize
- occasionally by prolonged periods of lateral recumbency and iatrogenically through IM injections into HL


What are the following signs indicative of in a cow?
- HL non-weight bearing
- Stifle and hock held in extension and distal joints of foot are flexed
- Foot is knuckled over
- Limb is dragged along by extension of the hip

Sciatic paralysis


Describe the aetiology of tibial paralysis in the cow

- Damage is rare, usually caused by extensive trauma to gastrocnemius area
- Supplies motor innervation to extensors of hock and flexors of digit


Describe the clinical signs of tibial paralysis in the cow

- Weight bearing shifted onto heels
- Animal walks with jerky motion


Describe the aetiology of peroneal paralysis in the cow

Damaged during periods of prolonged recumbency or sudden falls that damage the lateral aspect of the stifle joint


Describe the clinical signs of peroneal paralysis in the cow

Fetlock flexed (knuckled over) and hock extended, weight bearing but tends to stumble