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Flashcards in Exotics MSK diseases Deck (71)
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List your differentials for a falcon presented with swelling of the foot

- Bumblefoot
- Gout
- Neoplasia
- Foreign body
- Abscess


What factors need to be investigated in a bird with a swelling of the foot?

- Need to ask about the diet
- Need to ask about the perch
- Previous injury/illness
- Any concurrent signs


List the investigations needed in a case of suspected bumblefoot and justify

- Individual investigation of each individual toe
- Radiography (assess presence/degree of damage to the bone)
- Swab for culture, sensitivity and cytology (needed for treatment)
- Surgical debridement samples (ensures demonstration of infective agent rather than just commensal skin microbes)
- Blood tests (haematology, biochem - may be systemic disease, look for underlying cause that can be treated)
- Palpate origins of tendons


What is the notarium of a bird?

The fused thoracic vertebrae


Explain why the great vessels of older parrots may be visible on radiography

Atherosclerosis, either as a cause or result of cardiovascular compromise


Which skeletal structures need to be assessed in particular in a case of bumblefoot and why?

- Spine and HL
- May show evidence of abnormal weight bearing


What may be seen radiographically in severe cases of bumblefoot?

Progression of skin infection into the bone, which may be seen as lysis or fracture of the bone


How many phalanges are normal in the first, second, third and fourth digits of birds?

- First and second: 2 phalanges + claw
- Third: 3 phalanges + claw
- Fourth: 4 phalanges+ claw


Discuss the prognosis for a case of bumblefoot

- Guarded, with treatment ~80%
- Poor outcome usually related to owner not revealing underlying cause, or not addressing underlying case
- Commonly concurrent diseases


List concurrent diseases that are commonly identified in cases of bumblefoot

- Obesity
- Nutritional
- Aspergillosis
- Amyloidosis
- Heart disease
- Anything affecting circulation
- Anything affecting the immune system


Outline the treatment for early stage bumblefoot

- No surgery required
- Improve husbandry
- Meticulous cleaning of perches to prevent infection


Outline the treatment of bumblefoot if infection is present

- Topical or systemic antibiotics based on C+S, 1 week minimum, but usually requires several weeks treatment
- Amoxyclav, marbofloxacin can be used, avoid gentamycin systemically
- Clindamycin good bone penetration
- Fluoroquinolones can be used if needed, good penetration
- Metronidazole if Clostridia


Outline the treatment of bumblefoot lesions with deep infection and granulomatous material

- Surgical debridement
- Protective dressings after surgery, regular changes
- NSAIDs/analgesia
- if unable to grasp food or perch, prognosis poor, consider euthanasia


Outline the general approach to a lameness case in an exotic species

- Same as dog/cat
- History, clinical examination, radiography, cytology, biopsy, joint fluid analysis
- Endoscopy/arthroscopy possible in some, coelioscopy to look at internal organs esp. kidneys
- Sedation/GA often needed


What are the categories of lameness in exotics?

- Metabolic and nutritional
- Traumatic
- Degenerative
- Infection
- Neoplastic


Discuss traumatic causes of lameness in exotics

- Common from cage mates, other pets, owners
- Most reptiles should be kept alone, owners commonly think should be in pairs


Outline pododermatitis in rabbits

- No pads on feet, hair only
- Overgrown claws, overweight, DJD increase risk
- Most rabbits have degree of pododermatitis


Where does degenerative joint disease most commonly occur in rabbits?

- Stifles and spine most common
- Cranial cruciate disease common


What spinal deformity commonly occurs in older rabbits?



Which spinal deformities commonly occur in rabbits generally?

- Spondylosis
- Kyphosys
- Lordosis
- Scoliosis


What factors are risk factors for spinal deformities in rabbits?

- Small cages
- Lack of exercise


What do spinal deformities commonly occur as a result of in younger rabbits?



Outline the potential consequences of spinal deformities in rabbits

- May interfere with locomotion, caecotrophy, urination, grooming
- May result in faecal soiling, urine scald, unkempt co, Cheyletiella, facial dermatitis
- Pain may lead to aggression, depression, GI stasis


What is kyphosis?

Excessive curvature of the spine


What are the most common sites of fracture in rabbits?

- Spine and limbs
- Jaw also common
- Tibia most common


Discuss the development of nutritional secondary hyperparathyroidism in rabbits

- Common due to feeding of muesli mix, lack of UV-B
- Cause of dental disease in rabbits
- Indoor rabbits or outdoor rabbits shielded from sunlight


What are the most common sites of luxation in rabbits?

Hip, elbow and tarsus


What is the most common tumour that may cause metastatic musculoskeletal disease in rabbits?

Uterine adenocarcinoma


Explain the relationship between renal failure and musculoskeletal disease in rabbits

Leads to hypercalcaemia (normally excess excreted in urine), leading to soft tissue calcification and bone hypercalcification


How is musculoskeletal disease secondary to renal failure diagnosed in rabbits?

- Biochem and haematology may be normal
- If see hypercalcification and calcification of soft tissues on radiography is enough for diagnosis