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Flashcards in Exotics MSK diseases Deck (71)
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1

List your differentials for a falcon presented with swelling of the foot

- Bumblefoot
- Gout
- Neoplasia
- Foreign body
- Abscess

2

What factors need to be investigated in a bird with a swelling of the foot?

- Need to ask about the diet
- Need to ask about the perch
- Previous injury/illness
- Any concurrent signs

3

List the investigations needed in a case of suspected bumblefoot and justify

- Individual investigation of each individual toe
- Radiography (assess presence/degree of damage to the bone)
- Swab for culture, sensitivity and cytology (needed for treatment)
- Surgical debridement samples (ensures demonstration of infective agent rather than just commensal skin microbes)
- Blood tests (haematology, biochem - may be systemic disease, look for underlying cause that can be treated)
- Palpate origins of tendons

4

What is the notarium of a bird?

The fused thoracic vertebrae

5

Explain why the great vessels of older parrots may be visible on radiography

Atherosclerosis, either as a cause or result of cardiovascular compromise

6

Which skeletal structures need to be assessed in particular in a case of bumblefoot and why?

- Spine and HL
- May show evidence of abnormal weight bearing

7

What may be seen radiographically in severe cases of bumblefoot?

Progression of skin infection into the bone, which may be seen as lysis or fracture of the bone

8

How many phalanges are normal in the first, second, third and fourth digits of birds?

- First and second: 2 phalanges + claw
- Third: 3 phalanges + claw
- Fourth: 4 phalanges+ claw

9

Discuss the prognosis for a case of bumblefoot

- Guarded, with treatment ~80%
- Poor outcome usually related to owner not revealing underlying cause, or not addressing underlying case
- Commonly concurrent diseases

10

List concurrent diseases that are commonly identified in cases of bumblefoot

- Obesity
- Nutritional
- Aspergillosis
- Amyloidosis
- Heart disease
- Anything affecting circulation
- Anything affecting the immune system

11

Outline the treatment for early stage bumblefoot

- No surgery required
- Improve husbandry
- Meticulous cleaning of perches to prevent infection

12

Outline the treatment of bumblefoot if infection is present

- Topical or systemic antibiotics based on C+S, 1 week minimum, but usually requires several weeks treatment
- Amoxyclav, marbofloxacin can be used, avoid gentamycin systemically
- Clindamycin good bone penetration
- Fluoroquinolones can be used if needed, good penetration
- Metronidazole if Clostridia

13

Outline the treatment of bumblefoot lesions with deep infection and granulomatous material

- Surgical debridement
- Protective dressings after surgery, regular changes
- NSAIDs/analgesia
- if unable to grasp food or perch, prognosis poor, consider euthanasia

14

Outline the general approach to a lameness case in an exotic species

- Same as dog/cat
- History, clinical examination, radiography, cytology, biopsy, joint fluid analysis
- Endoscopy/arthroscopy possible in some, coelioscopy to look at internal organs esp. kidneys
- Sedation/GA often needed

15

What are the categories of lameness in exotics?

- Metabolic and nutritional
- Traumatic
- Degenerative
- Infection
- Neoplastic

16

Discuss traumatic causes of lameness in exotics

- Common from cage mates, other pets, owners
- Most reptiles should be kept alone, owners commonly think should be in pairs

17

Outline pododermatitis in rabbits

- No pads on feet, hair only
- Overgrown claws, overweight, DJD increase risk
- Most rabbits have degree of pododermatitis

18

Where does degenerative joint disease most commonly occur in rabbits?

- Stifles and spine most common
- Cranial cruciate disease common

19

What spinal deformity commonly occurs in older rabbits?

Spondylosis

20

Which spinal deformities commonly occur in rabbits generally?

- Spondylosis
- Kyphosys
- Lordosis
- Scoliosis

21

What factors are risk factors for spinal deformities in rabbits?

- Small cages
- Lack of exercise

22

What do spinal deformities commonly occur as a result of in younger rabbits?

Breeding/husbandry

23

Outline the potential consequences of spinal deformities in rabbits

- May interfere with locomotion, caecotrophy, urination, grooming
- May result in faecal soiling, urine scald, unkempt co, Cheyletiella, facial dermatitis
- Pain may lead to aggression, depression, GI stasis

24

What is kyphosis?

Excessive curvature of the spine

25

What are the most common sites of fracture in rabbits?

- Spine and limbs
- Jaw also common
- Tibia most common

26

Discuss the development of nutritional secondary hyperparathyroidism in rabbits

- Common due to feeding of muesli mix, lack of UV-B
- Cause of dental disease in rabbits
- Indoor rabbits or outdoor rabbits shielded from sunlight

27

What are the most common sites of luxation in rabbits?

Hip, elbow and tarsus

28

What is the most common tumour that may cause metastatic musculoskeletal disease in rabbits?

Uterine adenocarcinoma

29

Explain the relationship between renal failure and musculoskeletal disease in rabbits

Leads to hypercalcaemia (normally excess excreted in urine), leading to soft tissue calcification and bone hypercalcification

30

How is musculoskeletal disease secondary to renal failure diagnosed in rabbits?

- Biochem and haematology may be normal
- If see hypercalcification and calcification of soft tissues on radiography is enough for diagnosis

31

What are the 3 main causes of muscular weakness in rabbits?

- Floppy bunny syndrome
- Splayleg
- Nutritional muscular dystrophy

32

Describe floppy bunny syndrome (presentation, cause, treatment)

- Generalised flaccid paralysis but rabbit often still very alert with good appetite
- Exact cause unknown: hypokaalemia, hypoMg, plant toxicity, myasthenia gravis, E. cuniculi suggested
- E. cuniculi most likely
- Majority recover within 3-4 days with supportive care

33

Describe splayleg in rabbits (presentation, cause, treatment)

- HL or FL affected, usually one or two rather than all 4
- Usually younger rabbits
- Poor prognosis vs. floppy bunny, often will not resolve
- Treatment: supportive +/- euthanasia

34

Describe nutritional muscular dystrophy in rabbits (presentation, cause, treatment)

- Mostly commercial units, unlikely to be seen in pets
- Similar to sheep/cattle (Se deficiency)

35

Describe the general treatment of musculoskeletal disorders in rabbits

- Analgesia essential (opioids/NSAIDs)
- Ensure soft, clean bedding
- Ensure clean wounds, perineum, face, ears
- Casts and splints contraindicated generally
- Cage rest and pain relief effective

36

Why are casts/splints generally contraindicated in rabbits?

- Bones are wide proximally, thin distally - difficult to place
- Often exacerbate injury due to pendulum effect

37

What is the preferred treatment for fractures in rabbits?

External fixation for most fractures

38

What are the main risks associated with surgical fixation of fractures in rabbits?

- Rabbit bone has thin cortices, shatters easily
- Osteomyelitis significant risk with open wound, poor surgical technique, difficult to manage

39

What are the main complications of hindlimb amputation in rabbits?

- Contralateral pododermatitis
- Ipsilateral otitis
- But usually do well if generally well

40

Which species of rodent in particular are prone to pododermatitis?

- Guinea pigs
- Chincillas
- Rats

41

What commonly leads to degenerative joint disease in guinea pigs?

- Metastatic calcification
- Can occur in lung/joints
- Older guinea pigs usually, cause poorly documented

42

What are key differentials for a ferret presented with HL paresis?

- MSK disease
- Hypoglycaemia
- Cardiomyopathy
- Generalised lymphooma
- Generalised disease
- Abscessation of spine

43

Identify the common MSK diseases of ferrets

- Spinal abscesses
- Trauma
- Long bone fracture
- Elbow luxation
- Vertebral disc prolapse and spinal neoplasia reported

44

What is the most common cause of lameness and fractures in many exotic mammal species?

Nutritional secondary hyperparathyroidism (NSHP)

45

Outline the general treatment of MSK disorders in exotic mammals

- Cage rest
- Analgesia
- Supplement calcium and vit-D
- Correct diet
- UV-B provision

46

Describe the clinical signs of lameness disease in birds

- Can be very subtle
- Abnormal stance +/- reduced grip on perch
- Using beak/ipsilateral wing for support
- Affected leg may be warmer
- Bumblefoot on contralateral limb

47

List orthopaedic causes of lameness in birds

- Fractures
- Bumblefoot
- Luxation
- Spinal injury
- Growth deformities
- NSHP
- Septic arthritis
- Osteomyelitis
- Osteoarthritis
- Tendon injury
- Tenosynovitis

48

Describe state of fractures in birds

Commonly compound and contaminated, esp. wild birds

49

Which cause of lameness are waterfowl, raptors and budgies especially prone to?

Bumblefoot

50

Where do spinal injuries most commonly occur in birds? Why?

At the vertebral synsacral junction - this is the only moveable part of the spine

51

Name 2 common orthopaedic growth deformities in birds

- Luxated gastrocnemius tendon
- Juvenile osteodystrophy

52

When does juvenile osteodystrophy most commonly occur in birds?

- Hand rearing (too much space, move too much, excessive strain on bones too soon)
- Parents with inappropriate diet

53

How do tendon injuries most commonly occur in birds?

- Bites from companions/prey
- Equipment on legs e.g. rings
- Extension of skin infection

54

Name the causative agent of tenosynovitis in birds

Mycoplasma synoviae

55

Identify the non-orthopaedic causes of lameness in birds

- Nephritis
- Renal and testicular neoplasia
- Gout
- Mass effect in cloaca e.g. egg binding
- Lead poisoning
- Viral

56

Explain how nephritis can cause lameness in birds

- May be bacterial, parasitic, coccidial, fungal
- Kidney swells, presses on nerve, causes sciatica type pain
- Presents as paresis of limb

57

Describe the lameness that may occur with renal and testicular neoplasia in birds

- Most common in budgie
- Unilateral lameness

58

What does gout in birds often occur secondary to?

Renal disease

59

Describe the common presentation of lameness as a result of a cloacal mass effect

- Pushes against kidney, leading to pain or lameness
- Budgie, cockatiel, ducks most common
- May have regurgitation

60

Explain how lead poisoning may lead to lameness in birds

- Neuro and renotoxic
- Leads to limb weakness
- Raptors may be seen holding own feet i..e one on top of the other

61

Outline viral disease as a cause of lameness in birds

- Marek's disease in chickens
- Young birds presented with progressive lameness, death
- No MSK injury, one leg and one wing outstretched

62

What are the key considerations for fractures in birds?

- Lifestyle: wild need perfect restoration, caged can cop with less aggressive treatment
- Compound fractures or close to joints carry poor prognosis for return to normal function
- Ocular damage in 80% of impact injuries, damage to pecton probably PTS
- Surgical repair only once patient stable for at least a day

63

What is the pecton and explain its significance in birds?

- Black segmented patch in eye of bird
- Provides nutritional supply to the retina
- Must be visualised prior to release, minor damage can do well, significant damage means euthanasia

64

When do tibiotarsal fractures of birds most commonly occur?

In newly-jessed falconry birds

65

Discuss the tethering of falconry birds

- Should be short tether
- Prevent bird getting up too much speed before being held back

66

Describe the treatment of fractures in birds

- Immobilisation of joints more than 3-5 days may lead to permanent disability
- Casts and splints generally contraindicated
- Supportive body sling if trouble standing
- Ex-fix and IM pin most useful
- Must anaesthetise for each bandage change
- Need physiotherapy

67

What fractures in birds can have casts/splints applied?

- Distal tarsometatarsal
- Tibiotarsal in very small birds

68

List the factors that predispose to the development of bumblefoot

- Poor perching surfaces
- Trauma
- Excessive weight bearing
- Hypovitaminosis A

69

Describe the clinical signs of lameness in reptiles

- Can be very subtle even with severe fractures
- Abnormal stance/gait +/- reduced grip
- Often may just seem lethargic
- Deformity of spine/limbs +/- generalised limb swelling may indicate metabolic bone disease

70

Identify the orthopaedic causes of lameness in reptiles

- Fractures
- Luxation
- Tendon/ligament injury or infection
- Spinal injury(trauma, NSHP, burns)
- Septic arthritis/osteomyelitis (solid pus)

71

Identify the non-orthopaedic causes of lameness in reptiles

- Gout and pseudogout
- Pre- and post-ovulatory oostasis (POOS)
- Urolithiasis
- Hypocalcaemia
- Viral (herpes in tortoise)