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Flashcards in Fracture management 2 Deck (55)
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Explain non-locking plate contouring

- Required to create bone-plate friction
- Contour plate to the shape of the bone
- Use bending iron or press


Explain the use of dynamic compression plates

- Apply axial compression to transverse fracture
- Aim for primary bone union (contact healing)


Explain the use of compression screws in plates

- Screw either side of fracture fixed
- Screw inserted eccentrically
- As tightened, head shift down towards centre, pulls bone with it towards the fracture therefore compressing the fracture site
- Compression screws placed first, then neutralisation screws placed (place one positional first to hold plate in place


Explain the use of neutral screws in plates

- As tightened pull plate onto bone
- Do not move in plate hole and do not move bone


How many screw head movements and how many compression screws can be use in plates?

- Maximum of 2 screw head movements per plate hole
- Maximum of 2 compression screws, rest all neutral screws


Explain the function of neutralisation plates

- Used where other implants are used to reconstruct the fracture e.g. K wire, cerclage wire
- Used to stabilise against (neutralise) some forces and allow weight bearing on bone
- Bone takes some load


Explain the function of bridging plates

- Used where fracture is not reconstructed and bone unable to take any load, unstable to all forces
- Plate must take load, spans the fracture gap
- Use larger plate and auxillary fixation device e.g. IM pin


What is the main risk with bridging plates?

Plate failure in particular in mid section


What are the advantages and disadvantages of plate application for fracture repair?

- Good for fracture reduction/internal fixation
- But requires dissection and high biological cost: trauma to bone, disruption to soft tissue attachment and blood supply


Explain the use of locking plates

- Screw head locks into plate, have thread on head of screw and plate
- Implant stability provided by locking mechanism


Outline the advantages of locking plates

- Implant stability not dependent on bone quality
- Good purchase in poor quality bone
- Does not compress plate onto bone so no periosteal vascular disturbance
- Exact contouring not necessary
- Able to resist higher loads
- No chance of screw/thread stripping


Explain how plate failure most common occurs

- Exposure to cyclical bending due to trans cortex not being in tact (trans cortex must resist bending)
- Non-reconstructed fractures higher chance of bending
- Most common fail through screw hole


What is an external skeletal fixator device?

A device that fixes bone using pins inserted into the bone, external to skin and bone


Name the different frame times for ESFs

- Linear (most common)
- Circular
- Free form (putty/epoxy)
- Hybrid


Describe linear ESFs

- Longitudinal connecting bars
- Clamps attaching to pins inserted into bone
- Versatile
- Limited surgical incision so low biological cost


Name the different types of linear ESFs (5) in order from weakest to strongest

- Type IA
- Type IB
- Type II modified (IIB)
- Type II (IIA)
- Type III


Describe type IA linear ESFs (structure, insertion, pins, risks)

- Uniplanar and unilateral
- Safe corridor insertion through clean skin site
- Do not exceed 30% of bone diameter
- Plain and threaded pins used
- Tip threads and positive threads prevent breakage due to bending
- Pin tract infection risk


Describe type IB linear ESFs (structure, insertion, pins, risks)

- Biplanar (craniocaudal and mediolateral plane) and unilateral (one side of each plane)
- SAfe corridor insertion through clean skin site
- Do not exceed 30% of bone diameter
- Plain and threaded pins used, tip threads and positive threads prevent breakage due to bending
- Consideration of pin tract infection


Describe type IIB linear ESFs (structure, pins)

- Uniplanar, bilateral (2 sides of bone)
- Full pins top and bottom, half pins in between


Describe type IIA linear ESFs (structure, pins, risks)

- Bilateral and uniplanar
- Full pins throughout
- Technically difficult


Describe type III linear ESFs (structure, disadvantages)

- Biplanar, bilateral
- Excessively complicated, large, rarely used


Describe the structure of circular ESFs

Thin wires suspended by rings surrounding the limb


Outline the advantages and disadvatages of circular ESFs

- More versatile
- More applications
- Good for complex fracture applications

- More complex
- More demanding


Outline the advantages and disadvantages of free form/epoxy putty ESFs

- Very adaptable, bespoke frame
- Clamps and bars replaced by resin or epoxy putty

- Messy, cannot adjust post-op, tricky to de-stage


Describe hybrid ESFs and give a common example

- Combination of various fixator types
- Typically circular ESF distally + linear ESF proximally


Compare the healing achieved with ESFs and bone plates

- Bone plates have slower healing, primary bone union
- ESFs use secondary bone healing and heal twice as quickly, used for non-reconstructable/comminuted fracture


Describe the basic application of ESFs

- Pins designed for purpose, can have negative and positive profile
- 2 placed at either end of bone, external connecting bar placed
- Pins clamped in position whilst examining limb for length and orientation of the two joints
- Further pins placed to strengthen the construct with 2 close to the fracture
- Some limited ability to alter alignment after pins placed


Outline the main disadvantages of ESFs

- Do not get accurate fracture reduction
- Pins loosen
- Pin tract discharge common
- Complications almost guaranteed due to catching of structure
- Frequently have problems with bone healing due to technique or pin loosening
- Avoid ESF where possible as internal more reliable


In what conditions are splints required?

- Unstable fractures
- Unstable tendon injuries


When an injury is in region 1 of an equine limb, describe the correct splint placement

- Need to align the dorsal cortices
- Place splint dorsally
- Use commercial splints


When an injury is in region 2 of an equine limb, describe the correct splint placement

Splint placed laterally and caudally


When an injury is in region 3 of an equine limb, describe the correct splint placement

Splint should be placed laterally (and medially if possible)


When in injury is in region 4 of an equine limb, describe the correct splint placement

Only possible in the forelimb, need to stabilise the carpus, some may be better without splints as the joint above cannot be stabilised


Outline the main uses of coaptation

- Temporary support or first aid before definitive procedure is performed
- Reduce post operative swelling
- Provide additional support following surgical intervention
- To help protect wounds


What factors must be taken into consideration to determine if external coaptation is appropriate?

- Location
- Type of fracture
- Fracture reduction
- Breed and age


What is the basic principle of external coaptation?

To immobilise the joint above and below the site of fracture


What location of fractures are most suited to external coaptation? What is the exception?

- Fractures distal to the elbow and stifle
- Fractures proximal to these sights have high risk of bandage slippage which may increase stress on fracture site
- Articular and growth plate fractures: best managed with open reduction and internal fixation


What forces is external coaptation resistant to?

Bending and some resistance to rotation


Which types fractures are well suited to external coaptation?

- Transverse fractures best suited
- Simple oblique or spiral fractures that are stable after reduction


Outline the fracture reduction requirements when using external coaptation

- Minimally displced best
- Ends of fracture need to overlap by at least 50% in both orthogonal views to achieve healing
- Goal must always be perfect reduction


Compare and explain the suitability of juveniles vs adults to external coaptation

- Juvenile better than adults
- Good healing potential, able to form bridging callus in short period of time


In which location should external coaptation be avoided and why?

- Fractures of distal radius and ulna (esp. toy breeds)
- High incidence of delayed union due to poor blood supply to the area


Outline the complications that may occur with external coaptation

- Poor application
- Non-union due to poor stabilisation
- Excessive pressure on limb
- Excessive movement of bandage (rub, sores, swelling)


Briefly outline the application of a cast in small animals

- Rigid material completely surrounding limb
- Use Robert-Jones bandage for temporary support
- Only apply case once swelling subsided
- Use synthetic casting tapes
- Can make bivalving casts
- Any prominent areas should have additional padding surrounding it (i.e. doughnut shape) in order to make the area level
- Radiograph following application to ensure adequate fracture reduction


When might a modified Robert Jones bandage be used and what is meant by this?

- Replace cotton wool layer with light cast padding
- Does not provide fracture support, but can be benneficial following internal fixation to reduce swelling of soft tissues


Outline the method for applying a Robert Jones bandage

- Tape stirrups from above carpus/tarsus to beyond the toes
- Cotton wool layer to level of the mid-humerus/femur, leave nails of 2 middle toes visible
- Wrap conforming gauze over cotton wool, even pressure
- Repeat cotton wool and gauze layers twice, each time compress cotton wool
- Invert tape stirrups, adhere to outside of gauze
- Apply cohesive bandage layer


When would a Robert Jones bandage be appropriate?

- Temporary support to injured limb


When is the use of splints indicated in small animals?

Only for distal limb injuries, should not be used to stabilise more proximal fractures of the radius and tibia


Outline the application of a splint and explain why this is done

- Less padding to reduce motion between splint and skin
- Splint positioned over secondary layer and held in place with additional layer of gauze
- Final layer of adhesive tape/cohesive bandage


What are velpaeu slings used for?

Thoracic limbs, immobilise fractures and joints more proximally


What are Ehmer slings used for?

Pelvic limbs, immobilise fractures and joints more proximally


What are the disadvantages of slings?

- Difficult to place and maintain without slipping
- Potential to cause skin necrosis over feet if not carefully monitored


Outline the monitoring and treatment of a cast or splint for fracture and post-op support

- For fracture support: check weekly, change padding and inspect limb every 2 weeks
- For post-surgical support: change padding and inspect weekly


When should a Robert Jones bandage be changed for fracture support and general limb support?

- Fracture: change every 2-3 days
- General limb support: change weekly


Outline what checks should be performed for cast/bandages by the owner and how often?

- Check twice daily
- Check toes carefully for heat, swelling, pain
- Check pads and nails to ensure normal colour
- Check top of dressing for pain swelling
- Check skin above cast/bandage for increased redness, sores, swelling
- Check cast/bandage for bad smell