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Flashcards in Farm animal MSK diseases 4 Deck (58)
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Outline the role of Streptococcus suis in bacterial arthritis in pigs

- Primary pathogen
- Commensal of nostril, tonsil, vagina
- Can act opportunistically, esp. with PRRSc
- May also see meningitis/polyserositis (may die before lame)


How is Streptococcus suis transmitted?

- Often bought into a herd via carrier pigs
- Spread at tooth clipping/tail docking


Give the diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of Streptococcus suis bacterial arthritis in pigs

- Diagnosis: culturing affected tissue
- Treatment: antibiotics (mostly injectable, 5 days), NSAIDs
- Can respond well if treated early


Outline your approach to bacterial arthritis in suckling pigs

- Stop teeth clipping, check piglets mouths and clipping equipment
- Check colostrum management via blood sample from pigets
- Check iron administration esp. indoor systems, and hygiene of injector
- Check navel treatments and tail docking are carried out correctly and correct hygiene
- Check concurrent disease status esp. PRRSv
- Review flooring, state of creep temperatures and draughts i.e. housing
- Short term: preventative Abs prior to risk period to stop cycle


What is splayleg in piglets and how is it caused?

- Exact cause unknown, probably multiple
- Myofibrillar hypoplasia at histopath


Describe the typical clinical presentation of splayleg in piglets

- More common in Landrace pigs, and males
- Evident within 2-4 hours of birth, usually resolves ~5 days of age
- Can affect front, back or all legs
- Death of results due to inability to feed


Outline the treatment and prognosis for splayleg in piglets

- If not nursed appropriately, die due to not feeding
- Tape affected limbs together using 2.5cm wide plaster strip, leaving 5-8cm gap between legs
- Massage frequently
- Assist with feeding, give 10ml colostrum asap
- Keep on rough floor to prevent slipping
- Consider split suckling to reduce competition


Give the aetiology, presentation and management of congenital hyperostosis in pigs

- Thick leg syndrome
- Genetic aetiology: recessive autosomal gene, very rare
- Individual litters born with bony thickenings of the legs, esp. HLs
- Do not use same combination of boar and sow again


List the MSK conditions that typically occur in suckling pigs

- Bacterial arthritis
- Splay leg
- Congenital hyperostosis
- Trauma


List the MSK conditions that typically occur in growing pigs

- Erysipelas
- Metabolic bone disease
- Porcine stress syndrome
- Mycoplasma hyosynoviae
- Bacterial arthritis
- Spinal abscesses


Outline the aetiology of erysipelas in pigs

- Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae, common soil borne organism with tropism for heart valves, skin and joints
- Can also cause septicaemia


How does erysipelas cause lameness in pigs?

Joint infection causes turbid fibrinous arthritis


How can erysipelas be diagnosed, treated and prevented in pigs?

- Diagnosis: serum/joint fluid serology or culture
- Treatment: penicillin sometimes effective if used early
- Sows usually vaccinated, no need to vacc growing pigs unless known significant risk e.g. excessive contact with soil


Outline the cause and incidence of metabolic bone disease (osteomalacia, rickets) in pigs

- Reasonably common, esp. organic/home mill and mix farms
- Pathogenesis is imbalance between vit D, Ca, P (often Ca:P ratio wrong)


What are the consequences of metabolic bone disease in pigs and how can it be diagnosed?

- High incidence of pathological fractures and condemnations at slaughter
- Other bone abnormalities depending on cause
- Diagnosis on histopathology


What is porcine stress syndrome and how does it occur?

- Halothene gene, genetic mutation in ryr-1 gene that codes for calcium release channel of sarcoplasmic reticulum
- Homozygotes are clinically affected


Describe the signalment and clinical signs of porcine stress syndrome

- Pietrain, Landrace, Duroc
- Muscle tremors
- Dyspnoea
- Rapid increase in temp
- Collapse
- Death


What diseases is porcine stress syndrome associated with?

- Malignant hyperthermia
- Pale Soft and Exudative pork
- Back muscle necrosis


How is porcine stress syndrome diagnosed?

Histopathology of heart and skeletal muscle


Desribe the aetiopathogenesis of Mycoplasma hyosynoviae as a cause of lameness in pigs

- Plasmalymphocytic arthritis/synovitis, non-purulent
- Is a common, ubiquitous, primary pathogen
- Disease often follows stress, incubation period 1-3 weeks


Outline the signalment and clinical signs of Mycoplasma hyosynoviae infection in pigs

- Mild to severe lameness with swollen joints
- Sudden onset lameness
- One hindlimb commonly more severe
- Few other outward signs other than lameness
- Typically new group of gilts/boars 10-14 days post arrival on farm


How is Mycoplasma hyosynoviae in pigs diagnosed?

- Culutre of organism difficult, no reliable serology
- Often led by clinical picture
- Antibody examination of synovial fluid possible
- Response to lincomycin/tiamulin/tylosin good diagnostic indicator


Outline the teatment and control of Mycoplasma hyosynoviae in pigs

- Tiamulin or lincomycin usually good effect
- Control can be difficult if brought in by new gilts


Describe the aetiopathogenesis of spinal abscesses in pigs

Almost always bacteraemic spread from focus of infection e.g. tail biting lesion


Describe the clinical signs and treatment of spinal abscesses in pigs

- Affect joints swollen +/- abscessesation
- Pigs off legs but bright, variable paresis/paralysis of HLs
- Treatment rarely economical, culled on welfare grounds


List the MSK diseases that typically affect growing/breeding gilts

- Osteochondrosis
- Erysipelas
- Mycoplasma hyosynoviae


Outline the aetiology of osteochondrosis in pigs

- Non-infectious disease of joint surface, resulting in irreversible deterioration of articular cartilage and underlying bone
- Disturbance to endochondral ossification of articular cartilage when bones are still developing
- Highly prevalent (84-95% of sows)


What is osteochondrosis commonly associated with in pigs?

- Rapid growth rate
- Nutrition
- Genetic factors
- Flooring


Describe the clinical signs of osteochondrosis in pigs

- Variable from sub-clinical to severe
- Pain when standing
- Walking on knees
- Unwilling to extend carpi
- Ataxic, swaying gait
- Wide HL stance


How is osteochondrosis diagnosed and treated in pigs?

- Diagnosis by elimination and clinical signs, PM is only method for definitive diagnosis
- Treatment ineffective, prevention key