Flashcards in Small animal MSK disease 3 Deck (100)
In an emergency case, what are the main body systems/areas that need to be assessed?
- Abdominal (urinary, spleen etc.)
What do the letters in A CRASH PLAN stand for?
A: arteries and veins
In ACRASHPLAN, how are airways evaluated?
- Look for blockages
- Secure/establish airway immediately using ET tube
- Respiratory pattern
- Airway patency
In ACRASHPLAN, how is circulation evaluateed?
- Peripheral pulses incl. femoral and dorsal metatarsal, CRT, MM, blood pressure
In ACRASHPLAN, how is the respiratory system evaluated?
- Rate and effort
- Respiratory sounds
- External wounds to the chest
In ACRASHPLAN, how is the abdomen evaluated?
- Palpation, auscultation, imaging
- External wounds
- FAST ultrasound for free fluid and bladder integrity
Outline the ultrasonographic evaulation in an emergency situation
- Abdomen: AFAST, 4 sites: diaphragmatic-hepatic, splenorenal, cysto-colic, hepatorenal, and bladder integrity assessed
- Thorax: same time as abodminal, examine left and right sides, chest tube site, pericardial site, wet/dry/third space
In ACRASHPLAN, how is the spine evaluated?
- Panniculus, reflexes, assess for deep pain
- Gait and posture, pain sensation, crepitus
In ACRASHPLAN, how is the head evaluated?
- Visual, imaging, eyes, palpation
- Mentation cognitive function, cranial nerves, external wounds/bruising
- Eyes: symmetry, third eyelids, eye position, haemorrhage, detailed ophthalmological examination
- Ears and nose also
In ACRASHPLAN, how is the pelvis evaluated?
- Pelvic limb reflexes
- Wounds, bruising, pain, crepitus, perineum, external genitalia
In ACRASHPLAN, outline the limb evaluation
- Palpation, reflexes, imaging
- Deformities, fractures, pain, bruising, wounds, weight bearing vs not
In ACRASHPLAN, outline the evaluation of the arteries and veins
- CRT, MM colour, peripheral pulses, BP
- All accessible superficial arteries pulse and pressure
In ACRASHPLAN, outline the evaluation of the nerves
- Neurological exam
- Mentation, cranial nerves, conscious proprioception, postural reflexes, peripheral spinal reflexes, withdrawal reflexes, deep pain, cutaneous trunci reflex, anal tone
Outline the thoracic evaluation in an emergency trauma case
- Full thoracic examination, visual and palpation for broken ribs etc.
- Radiography to assess potential for rib fracture, diaphragmatic hernia etc.
Outline the initial advise that should be given to an owner over the phone in an trauma emergency situation
- Almost always best to bring in
- Advise careful approach
- If bleeding, apply pressure either with dressing from first aid kit, or clean towel
- Attempt to keep injured limbs still where possible
- Vets must attend to animal if animal cannot be brought into practice
Outline the telephone advice that should be given to a farmer in the case of difficult lambings/calvings
Leave animal quietly and do not attempt further intervention
Outline the telephone advice that should be given to a farmer in the case of a uterine prolapse
- Contain animal and keep as quiet as possible
- Wrap prolapse in clean, damp cloth e.g. old bed sheet to limit/prevent injury to uterus
Outline the telephone advice that should be given to a farmer in the case of a ruptured uterine artery
- Place hand in vagina, identify rupture artery (high pulsing pressure), grasp and hold to prevent further blood loss
- If not possible, pack vagina with clean damp towels in an attempt to limit blood loss
Outline the telephone advice to a farmer in the case of an emergency call regarding milk fever
If in lateral, prop into sternal using straw bale to prevent bloat
Outline the telephone advice to a farmer in the case of an emergency call regarding grass staggers
- Advice farmer not to touch/stimulate animal, may provoke fitting
- Stay clear of animal during fitting
Outline the telephone advice to a farmer in case of an emergency call for a cut/distal limb fracture
- Ask farmer to describe injury
- Isolate animal into a small pen to limit further injury by reducing space to walk in
What are the 3 main underlying causes of orthopaedic infection in animals?
- Haematogenous spread
- Direct contamination from trauma/puncture wound
- Post-operative infection, usually associated with an implant
What is the most common cause of orthopaedic infection in neonates of all species?
Haematogenous spread from umbilical infection
What are the most common infectious agent causing osteomyelitis in all species?
- Foals: enteric G-ve organisms
- Small animals: Streptococcus spp.
What is the most common cause of orthopaedic infection in dogs and cats?
What are the most common infectious agents causing osteomyelitis in dogs and cats?
Trauma: Staph, Strep
What is the most common cause of orthopaedic infection in farm animals (sheep and cows)?
External and internal traumatic events to joints and bones
What is the most common infectious agent causing osteomyelitis in farm animals?
Actinomyces pyogenes (may or may not be combined with anaerobes)
What are the most common causes of orthopaedic infection in adult horses
- Septic arthritis secondary to injection
- Septic arthritis and osteomyelitis secondary to trauma
- Osteomyelitis due to implant infection