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USLME Step 2 > FARR Cardiovascular > Flashcards

Flashcards in FARR Cardiovascular Deck (36):
1

Classic ECG finding in atrial flutter.

“Sawtooth” P waves.

2

Definition of unstable angina.

Angina is new, is worsening, or occurs at rest.

3

Antihypertensive for a diabetic patient with proteinuria.

ACEI.

4

Beck’s triad for cardiac tamponade.

Hypotension, distant heart sounds, and JVD.

5

Drugs that slow AV node transmission.

β-blockers, digoxin, calcium channel blockers.

6

Hypercholesterolemia treatment that leads to flushing and pruritus.

Niacin.

7

Murmur—hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy (HOCM)

Systolic ejection murmur heard along the lateral sternal border that ↑ with Valsalva maneuver and standing.

8

Murmur—aortic insufficiency.

Diastolic, decrescendo, high-pitched, blowing murmur that is best heard sitting up; ↑ with ↓ preload (handgrip maneuver).

9

Murmur—aortic stenosis.

Systolic crescendo/decrescendo murmur that radiates to the neck; ↑ with ↑ preload (Valsalva maneuver).

10

Murmur—mitral regurgitation.

Holosystolic murmur that radiates to the axillae or carotids.

11

Murmur—mitral stenosis.

Diastolic, mid- to late, low-pitched murmur.

12

Treatment for atrial fibrillation and atrial flutter.

If unstable, cardiovert. If stable or chronic, rate control with calcium channel blockers or β-blockers.

13

Treatment for ventricular fibrillation.

Immediate cardioversion.

14

Autoimmune complication occurring 2–4 weeks post-MI.

Dressler’s syndrome: fever, pericarditis, ↑ ESR.

15

IV drug use with JVD and holosystolic murmur at the left sternal border. Treatment?

Treat existing heart failure and replace the tricuspid valve.

16

Diagnostic test for hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

Echocardiogram (showing thickened left ventricular wall and outflow obstruction).

17

A fall in systolic BP of > 10 mmHg with inspiration.

Pulsus paradoxus (seen in cardiac tamponade).

18

Classic ECG findings in pericarditis.

Low-voltage, diffuse ST-segment elevation.

19

Eight surgically correctable causes of hypertension.

Renal artery stenosis, coarctation of the aorta, pheochromocytoma, Conn’s syndrome, Cushing’s syndrome, unilateral renal parenchymal disease, hyperthyroidism, hyperparathyroidism.

20

Evaluation of a pulsatile abdominal mass and bruit.

Abdominal ultrasound and CT.

21

Indications for surgical repair of abdominal aortic aneurysm.

> 5.5 cm, rapidly enlarging, symptomatic, or ruptured.

22

Treatment for acute coronary syndrome.

Morphine, O2, sublingual nitroglycerin, ASA, IV β-blockers, heparin.

23

What is metabolic syndrome?

Abdominal obesity, high triglycerides, low HDL, hypertension, insulin resistance, prothrombotic or proinflammatory states.

24

Appropriate diagnostic test?
■ A 50-year-old man with angina can exercise to 85% of
maximum predicted heart rate.
■ A 65-year-old woman with left bundle branch block and
severe osteoarthritis has unstable angina.

Exercise stress treadmill with ECG.
Pharmacologic stress test (e.g., dobutamine echo).

25

ECG findings suggesting MI.

ST-segment elevation (depression means ischemia), flattened T waves, and Q waves.

26

Coronary territories in MI.

Anterior wall (LAD/diagonal), inferior (PDA), posterior (left circumflex/oblique, RCA/marginal), septum (LAD/diagonal).

27

A young patient has angina at rest with ST-segment elevation. Cardiac enzymes are normal.

Prinzmetal’s angina.

28

Common symptoms associated with silent Mls.

CHF, shock, and altered mental status.

29

The diagnostic test for pulmonary embolism.

V/Q scan.

30

An agent that reverses the effects of heparin.

Protamine.

31

The coagulation parameter affected by warfarin.

PT.

32

A young patient with a family history of sudden death collapses and dies while exercising.

Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

33

The 6 P’s of ischemia due to peripheral vascular disease.

Pain, pallor, pulselessness, paralysis, paresthesia, poikilothermia.

34

Virchow’s triad.

Stasis, hypercoagulability, endothelial damage.

35

The most common cause of hypertension in young women.

OCPs.

36

The most common cause of hypertension in young men.

Excessive EtOH.