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Flashcards in FARR Key Associations Deck (111):
1

Actinic (solar) keratosis

Precursor to squamous cell carcinoma

2

Acute gastric ulcer associated with CNS injury

Cushing's ulcer (t ICP stimulates vagal gastric secretion)

3

Acute gastric ulcer associated with severe burns

Curling's ulcer (greatly reduced plasma volume results in
sloughing ofgastric mucosa)

4

Alternating areas of transmural inflammation and normal
colon

Skip lesions (Crohn's disease)

5

Aneurysm, dissecting

Hypertension

6

Aortic aneurysm, abdominal and descending aorta

Atherosclerosis

7

Aortic aneurysm, arch

Tertiary syphilis (syphilitic aortitis), vasa vasorum destruction

8

Aortic aneurysm, ascending

Marfan's syndrome (idiopathic cystic medial degeneration)

9

Atrophy of the mammillary bodies

Wernicke's encephalopathy (thiamine deficiency causing ataxia, ophthalmoplegia, and confusion)

10

Autosplenectomy (fibrosis and shrinkage)

Sickle cell anemia (hemoglobin S)

11

Bacteria associated with gastritis, peptic ulcer disease, and stomach cancer

H. pylori

12

Bacterial meningitis (adults and elderly)

Streptococcus pnewnoniae

13

Bacterial meningitis (newborns and kids)

Group B streptococcus (newborns), S. pneumoniae/Neisseria meningitidis (kids)

14

Benign melanocytic nevus

Spitz nevus (most common in first two decades)

15

Bleeding disorder with Gplb deficiency

Bernard-Soulier syndrome (defect in platelet adhesion to von Willebrand's factor)

16

Brain tumor (adult)

Supratentorial : metastasis > astrocytoma (including glioblastoma multiforme) > meningioma > schwannoma

17

Brain tumor (kids)

Infratentorial: medulloblastoma (cerebellum) or supratentorial: craniopharyngioma (cerebrum)

18

Breast cancer

Infiltrating ductal carcinoma (in the U.S., l in 9 women will develop breast cancer)

19

Breast mass

Fibrocystic change, carcinoma (in postmenopausal women)

20

Breast tumor (benign)

Fibroadenoma

21

Cardiac lo tumor (kids)

Rhabdomyoma, often seen in tuberous sclerosis

22

Cardiac manifestation of lupus

Libman-Sacks endocarditis (nonbacterial, affecting both sides of mitral valve)

23

Cardiac tumor (adults)

Metastasis, 1° myxoma (4: l left to right atrium; "ball and valve")

24

Cerebellar tonsillar herniation

Chiari malformation (often presents with progressive hydrocephalus or syringomyelia)

25

Chronic atrophic gastritis (autoimmune)

Predisposition to gastric carcinoma (can also cause pernicious anemia)

26

Congenital adrenal hyperplasia, hypotension

21-hydroxylase deficiency

27

Congenital cardiac anomaly

VSD

28

Constrictive pericarditis

Tuberculosis (developing world); systemic lupus erythematosus (developed world)

29

Coronary artery involved in thrombosis

LAD > RCA > LCA

30

Cretinism

Iodine deficit/hypothyroidism

31

Cushing's syndrome

• Iatrogenic Cushing's (from corticosteroid therapy)
• Adrenocortical adenoma (secretes excess cortisol)
• ACTH-secreting pituitary adenoma
• Paraneoplastic Cushing's (clue to ACTH secretion by tumors)

32

Death in CML

Blast crisis

33

Death in SLE

Lupus nephropathy

34

DIC

Severe sepsis, obstetric complications, cancer, burns, trauma, maJor surgery

35

Diverticulum in pharynx

Zenker's diverticulum (diagnosed by barium swallow)

36

Glomeru lonephritis (adults)

Berger's disease (IgA nephropathy)

37

Heart murmur, congenital

Mitral valve prolapse

38

Hematoma-epidural

Rupture of middle meningeal artery (trauma; lentiform shaped)

39

Hematoma-subdural

Rupture of bridging veins (crescent shaped)

40

Hepatocellular carcinoma

Cirrhotic liver (associated with hepatitis B and C and with alcoholism)

41

Hereditary harmless jaundice

Gilbert's syndrome (benign congenital unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia)

42

HLA-B27

Ankylosing spondylitis, Reiter's syndrome, ulcerative colitis, psonasis

43

HLA-DR3 or -DR4

Diabetes mellitus type 1, rheumatoid arthritis, SLE

44

Holosystolic murmur

VSD, tricuspid regurgitation, mitral regurgitation

45

Hypercoagulability, endothelial damage, blood stasis

Virchow's triad (results in venous thrombosis)

46

Hypopituitarism

Pituitary adenoma (usually benign tumor)

47

Infection 2° to blood transfusion

Hepatitis C

48

Infections in chronic granulomatous disease

Staphylococcus aureus, E. coli, Aspergillus (catalase positive)

49

Kidney stones

• Calcium = radiopaque
• Struvite (ammonium) = radiopaque (formed by urease-positive organisms such as Proteus vulgaris or Staphylococcus)
• Uric acid = radiolucent

50

Late cyanotic shunt (uncorrected left to right becomes right to left)

Eisenmenger's syndrome (caused by ASD, VSD, PDA; results in pulmonary hypertension/polycythemia)

51

Lysosomal storage disease

Gaucher's disease

52

Male cancer

Prostatic carcinoma

53

Malignancy associated with noninfectious fever

Hodgkin's lymphoma

54

Malignancy (kids)

ALL, medulloblastoma (cerebellum)

55

Mental retardation

Down syndrome, fragile X syndrome

56

Metastases to bone

Prostate, breast > lung > thyroid, testes

57

Metastases to brain

Lung > breast > genitourinary > osteosarcoma > melanoma > GI

58

Metastases to liver

Colon >> stomach, pancreas

59

Mitochondrial inheritance

Disease occurs in both males and females, inherited through females only

60

Mitral valve stenosis

Rheumatic heart disease

61

Mixed (UM and LMN) motor neuron disease

ALS

62

Myocarditis

Coxsackie B

63

Nephrotic syndrome (adults)

Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis

64

Nephrotic syndrome (kids)

Minimal change disease

65

Neuron migration failure

Kallmann syndrome (hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and anosmia)

66

Opening snap

Mitral stenosis

67

Opportunistic infection in AIDS

Pnewnocystis jirovecii (formerly carinii) pneumonia

68

Osteomyelitis

S. aureus

69

Osteomyelitis in sickle cell disease

Salmonella

70

Osteomyelitis with IV drug use

Pseudomonas, S. aureus

71

Ovarian metastasis from gastric carcinoma or breast cancer

Krukenberg tumor (mucin-secreting signet-ring cells)

72

Ovarian tumor (benign, bilateral)

Serous cystadenoma

73

Ovarian tumor (malignant)

Serous cystadenocarcinoma

74

Pancreatitis (acute)

Gallstones, alcohol

75

Pancreatitis (chronic)

Alcohol (adults), cystic fibrosis (kids)

76

Patient with ALL /CLL /AML /CML

ALL: child, CLL: adult > 60, AML: adult - 65, CML: adult
30-60

77

Pelvic inflammatory disease

Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae

78

Philadelphia chromosome t(9;22) (bcr-abl)

CML (may sometimes be associated with ALL/AML)

79

Pituitary tumor

Prolactinoma, somatotropic "acidophilic" adenoma

80

Primary amenorrhea

Turner syndrome (45,XO)

81

Primary bone tumor (adults)

Multiple myeloma

82

Primary hyperaldosteronism

Adenoma of adrenal cortex

83

Primary hyperparathyroidism

Adenomas, hyperplasia, carcinoma

84

Primary liver cancer

Hepatocellular carcinoma (chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis, hemochromatosis, a.1 antitrypsin deficiency)

85

Pulmonary hypertension

COPD

86

Recurrent inflammation/thrombosis ofsmall/medium vessels in extremities

Buerger's disease (strongly associated with tobacco)

87

Renal tumor

Renal cell carcinoma: associated with von Hippel-Linclau and cigarette smoking; paraneoplastic syndromes (EPO, renin, PTH, ACTH)

88

Right heart failure clue to a pulmonary cause

Cor pulmonale

89

S3 (protocliastolic gallop)

increased ventricular filling (left to right shunt, mitral regurgitation, LV failure [CHF])

90

S4 (presystolic gallop)

Stiff/hypertrophic ventricle (aortic stenosis, restrictive
cardiomyopathy)

91

Secondary hyperparathyroidism

Hypocalcemia of chronic kidney disease

92

Sexually transmitted disease

Chlamydia (usually coinfectecl with gonorrhea)

93

SIADH

Small cell carcinoma of the lung

94

Site of diverticula

Sigmoid colon

95

Sites ofatherosclerosis

Abdominal aorta > coronary artery > popliteal artery > carotid artery.

96

Stomach cancer

Adenocarcinoma

97

Stomach ulcerations and high gastrin levels

Zollinger-Ellison syndrome (gastrinoma ofduodenum or
pancreas)

98

t(l4;l8)

Follicular lymphomas (bcl-2 activation)

99

t(8;14)

Burkitt'slymphoma(c-myc activation)

100

t(9;22)

Philadelphia chromosome, CML (bcr-abl fusion)

101

Temporal arteritis

Risk ofipsilateral blindness clue to thrombosis ofophthalmic artery; polymyalgia rheumatica

102

Testicular tumor

Seminoma

103

Thyroid cancer

Papillary carcinoma

104

Tumor in women

Leiomyoma (estrogen dependent, not precancerous)

105

Tumor of infancy

Hemangioma (usually regresses spontaneously by childhood)

106

Tumor of the adrenal medulla (adults)

Pheochromocytoma (usually benign)

107

Tumor of the adrenal medulla (kids)

Neuroblastoma (malignant)

108

Type of Hodgkin's

Nodular sclerosis (vs. m ixed cellularity, lymphocytic predominance, lymphocytic depletion)

109

Type of non-Hodgkin's

Diffuse large cell

110

Viral encephalitis affecting temporal lobe

HSV-l

111

Vitamin deficiency (U.S.)

Folate (pregnant women are at high risk; body stores only 3- to 4-month supply; prevents neural tube defects)