Flashcards in FARR Pulmonary Deck (25):
Risk factors for DVT.
Stasis, endothelial injury, and hypercoagulability (Virchow’s triad).
Criteria for exudative effusion.
Pleural/serum protein > 0.5; pleural/serum LDH > 0.6.
Causes of exudative effusion.
Think of leaky capillaries. Malignancy, TB, bacterial or viral infection, pulmonary embolism with infarct, and pancreatitis.
Causes of transudative effusion.
Think of intact capillaries. CHF, liver or kidney disease, and protein-losing enteropathy.
Normalizing PCO2 in a patient having an asthma exacerbation may indicate?
Fatigue and impending respiratory failure.
Dyspnea, lateral hilar lymphadenopathy on CXR, noncaseating granulomas, ↑ ACE, and hypercalcemia.
PFTs showing ↓ FEV1/FVC.
Obstructive pulmonary disease (e.g., asthma).
PFTs showing ↑ FEV1/FVC.
Restrictive pulmonary disease.
Honeycomb pattern on CXR. Diagnosis? Treatment?
Diffuse interstitial pulmonary fibrosis. Supportive care. Steroids may help.
Treatment for SVC syndrome.
Treatment for mild, persistent asthma.
Inhaled β-agonists and inhaled corticosteroids.
Treatment for COPD exacerbation.
O2, bronchodilators, antibiotics, corticosteroids with taper, smoking cessation.
Treatment for chronic COPD.
Smoking cessation, home O2, β-agonists, anticholinergics, systemic or inhaled corticosteroids, flu and pneumococcal vaccines.
Acid-base disorder in pulmonary embolism.
Hypoxia and hypocarbia (respiratory alkalosis).
Non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) associated with hypercalcemia.
Squamous cell carcinoma.
Lung cancer associated with SIADH.
Small cell lung cancer (SCLC).
Lung cancer highly related to cigarette exposure.
A tall white male presents with acute shortness of breath. Diagnosis? Treatment?
Spontaneous pneumothorax. Spontaneous regression. Supplemental O2 may be helpful.
Treatment of tension pneumothorax.
Immediate needle thoracostomy.
Characteristics favoring carcinoma in an isolated pulmonary nodule.
Age > 45–50 years; lesions new or larger in comparison to old films; absence of calcification or irregular calcification; size > 2 cm; irregular margins.
Hypoxemia and pulmonary edema with normal pulmonary capillary wedge pressure.
Sequelae of asbestos exposure.
Pulmonary fibrosis, pleural plaques, bronchogenic carcinoma (mass in lung field), mesothelioma (pleural mass).
↑ risk of what infection with silicosis?
Causes of hypoxemia.
Right-to-left shunt, hypoventilation, low inspired O2 tension, diffusion defect, V/Q mismatch.