Essential Drugs Flashcards Preview

USLME Step 2 > Essential Drugs > Flashcards

Flashcards in Essential Drugs Deck (35):
1

Allopurinal

Generic Indication Side effects Initiating treatment monitoring Dose pregnancy/Bfeeding hepatic renal

  1. xenthine oxidase inhibitor
  2. Gout
  3. gout, GI, rash +fever, agranulocytosis
  4. 2 weeks postgout, NSAID,colchi (3months),
  5. water uric acid<0.36, UnE,FBC monthly
  6. 100-300mg, start 100mg
  7. preg: avoid, BF: safe
  8. reduce
  9. reduce

2

Amytriptyline

Generic Indication Side effects Initiating treatment monitoring Dose pregnancy/Bfeeding hepatic renal

  1. tricyclic antidepressant 
  2. depression, pain
  3. arrythmia, sedation (night), ACH, suicide, GI, sun sensitivity.
  4. CVD? (risk arrythmia), other SSRI's?
  5. review effect?
  6. 30-200mg
  7. congenital, BF okay
  8. more sedative
  9. nil

3


Aspirin

 

  1. acetylsalicylic acid 
  2. many
  3. bleeding, allergy, asthma, kidney,
  4. asthma? GI bleeding? 
  5.  no monitoring
  6. 75-325mg/d
  7. hemorrhage, PDA, REYE's 
  8. GI bleed
  9. renotoxic

4


bendrofluazide

  1. thiazide diuretic 
  2. HTN etc
  3. post hypotension, diabetes, arrythmia, rash, lipid UnE, glucose, lipid
  4. UnE, glucose, lipid
  5. 2-10mg
  6. preg: bone marrow failure, BF: okay
  7. nil
  8. nil 

5

Codein

  1. opiate
  2. pain
  3. nausea, constipation, abdo pain, sedation, 
  4. constipation? Sedation? Laxatives
  5. review pain, constipation
  6. up to 300mg
  7. neonatal withdrawal
  8. accumulate
  9. reduce

6

diazepam, zopiclone, lorazepam 

  1. Antianxiolytic/hypnotics
  2. Anxiety, Insomnia, Muscle spasm
  3. sedation, amnesia, addiction, ataxia
  4. risk of injury from sedation
  5. monitor symptomatic
  6. up to 30mg/d
  7. withdrawal, avoid BF
  8. reduce
  9. reduce

7

doxazosin, terazosin

  1.  Alpha-blocker
  2. Prostate hypertrophy, Hypertension
  3. drowsiness, headaches and dizziness     

8

diclofenac  

  1. NSAID
  2. pain/inflammation
  3. Bleeding, peptic ulcer,  renal toxic, 
  4. GI bleed, renal funciton, omeprazole? renal function
  5. 75-150mg/d
  6. prolong labour, PDA close
  7. GI bleed
  8. toxic

9

digoxin

  1. digoxin 
  2. atrial fibrillation, atrial flutter and sometimes heart failure
  3. palpitation, syncope, SOB, diarhoea
  4. UnE
  5. weekly digoxin level 0.8-2ng/ml, UNE, LFT
  6. 75-150mg/d adjust dose,
  7. BF safe. 
  8. ...
  9. reduce

10

diltiazem

  1.  calcium channel blockers
  2. hypertension, angina pectoris, and some types of arrhythmia.
  3. bradycardia, palpitaitons, postural hypo, edema, rash
  4. heart failure?
  5. HR/BP
  6. 60mg TID
  7. avoid
  8. reduce 
  9. start low

11

cilazapril, enalapril, quinapril

  1. ACE Inhibitor
  2. Hypertension, Heart failure, Diabetic nephropathy, Chronic kidney disease, Post-MI
  3. angioedema, postural hypo?, agranulocytosis
  4. peripheral vascular disease
  5. BP/creatinine/FBC
  6. 5mg-40mg/d
  7. defects, BF: neonatal hypo
  8. accumulation
  9. reduce

12

erythromycin 

  1.  Macrolide
  2. Atypical: Mycoplasma and legionellosis
  3. GI upset, jaundice, rash, palpitations
  4. OC? Finish course
  5. symptoms
  6. up to 4g/d
  7. okay
  8. hepatotoxicity
  9. max 1.65G (ototoxic)

13

ethanol

  1. alcohol
  2. ...
  3. sedation, euphoria, aggression, depression, ataxia 
  4. ...
  5. serum alcohol 
  6. ...
  7. Fetal alcohol syndrome
  8. toxic
  9. ...

14

fluoxetine  

  1. SSRI
  2. Depression, Panic disorder
  3. GI, insomnia, suicidality, low sodium, impotence, rash
  4. other serotonin
  5. suicidality
  6. 20-60mg/d
  7. avoid
  8. reduce
  9. updose: deafness

15

frusemide  

  1. Loop diuretics
  2. Congestive HF, oedema
  3. GI disturbance, postural hypo, rash
  4. UnE, LFT
  5. UnE, LFT
  6. up to 120mg
  7. maternal hypovolaemia, safe BF
  8. low K: encephalopathy
  9. ...

16

gentamicin

  1. aminoglycoside antibiotic
  2. bacterial infections, particularly those caused by Gram-negative organisms
  3. hearing loss, kidney, GI, rash 
  4. ...
  5. UNE, gent level, 
  6. 3-5mg/kg daily
  7. ototoxic, nephrotoxic
  8. gent level
  9. reduce dose

17

glicazide

  1.  sulfonylurea/hypoglycemic 
  2. ...
  3. hypogly, GI, rash, low sodium
  4. blood sugar,  weight
  5. blood sugar
  6. 40mg-320mg
  7. neonatal hypo
  8. low dose
  9. low dose

18

glyceryl trinitrate, isosorbide, perhexiline

  1.  Antianginal
  2. Angina postural
  3. hypo, palpitations, headache
  4. sit down
  5. sit, 2 spray x2, ambulance.
  6. 2 spray
  7. okay, benefit:risk 

19

haloperidol

  1.  typical antipsychotic/dopamine inverse agonist 
  2. schizophrenia and acute psychotic states and delirium
  3. drowsy, sexual dysfunction, FAT, bradykinesia/dyskinesia, rash, NMS
  4. ECG, lipids glucose
  5. ECG, lipids, glucose.
  6. 3-10mg
  7. avoid if possible.
  8. monitor serum
  9. cerebral sensitivity

20

heparin

  1.  anticoagulant
  2. many
  3. HIT, hyperkalaemia, haemorrhage
  4. platelets, UNE
  5. APTT, platelets, UNE
  6. 0.5-5mg bid/tid
  7. okay
  8. APTT mon.
  9. APTT mon.

21

insulin

  1.   insulin
  2. diabetes
  3. hypo, fat hypertophery, hypersensitivity, rash
  4. vary sites in abdo, jelly bean, 
  5. blood sugar 
  6. fetal hypo
  7. reduced
  8. reduced

22

propofol, lignocaine

  1.  ...
  2. Anaesthetics
  3. arrythmia, anaphylaxis, methhaemoglobin, CNS (tingling numbness, coma) 
  4. ...
  5. ECG?
  6. 3mg/kg+adrenaline= 7mg/kg
  7. okay
  8. increased side effects
  9. accumulation

23

metformin

  1.  biguanide
  2. diabetes
  3. gi upset, anorexia, taste disturbance, rash, lactic acidosis
  4. LFT, UnE, lactic acidosis stop dehydrated
  5. LFT, Une, blood sugar,
  6. 0.5g-2g
  7. okay
  8. caution, lactic acidosis
  9. lactic acidosis

24

metoprolol

  1.  β1 receptor blocker
  2. many
  3. bradycardia, postural hypotension, fatigue, sexual dysfunction, asthma
  4. asthma?
  5. BP, HR
  6. 100mg-400mg/d
  7. IUGR, beta blockade
  8. reduce
  9. ...

25

metronidazole

  1.   ...
  2. used particularly for anaerobic bacteria and protozoa
  3. disulfram like, photosensitivity  GI, taste, oral mucositis
  4. alcohol intake?
  5. high dose, >10 days, FBC 2g daily(up to 6dose/d)
  6. avoid
  7. reduce
  8. ...
  9. ...

26

morphine

  1.    ...
  2. ...
  3. sedation, psychosis, addiction, GI, resp dep
  4. constipation? Sedation?
  5. review pain, GCS, constipation
  6. 40mg/d titrate up
  7. baby withdrawal
  8. reduce
  9. reduce

27

omeprazole

  1.    PPI
  2. GORD/NSAIDs-induced gastric upset
  3. GI, headache, gynaecomastia, interstitial nephritis, SJS
  4. 30mins bfbf
  5. UnE, LFT
  6. up to 80mg
  7. not harmful
  8. <=20mg/d
  9. ...

28

paracetamol

  1.    ...
  2. ...
  3. liver damage in Overdose!, rare: rash, blood disorders, 
  4. other paracetamol? Avoid alcohol
  5. review pain/fever
  6. up to 4g/d, kids 15mg/kg q6h
  7. not harmful
  8. <3g/d
  9. ...

29

penicillin

  1.    ...
  2. ...
  3. anaphylaxis, diarrhoea, convulsions
  4. penicillin sensitivity?
  5. clinical improvement
  6. up to 4g/d
  7. not harmful 
  8. ...
  9. ...

30

phenytoin

  1.    antiepileptic
  2. ....
  3. bleeding, anaphylax, leucopenia,  GI, sleep, paresthesia, behaviour avoid calcium/ alcohol cose to dose. phenytoin level 24 hrly, adjust to 4-6mg/kg 15-20mg/kg, OD/BID neural tubal defects reduce

31

prednisone

  1.  corticosteroid 
  2. ...
  3. fat, mood, glucose, infection, bone,
  4. infections?
  5. withdraw slowly, let doc know
  6. 20mg- 120?
  7. IUGR long term,  Bf ok 

32

salbutamol

  1.  β2-adrenergic receptor agonist 
  2. ...
  3. palpitations, tremor, sweating, muscle cramps
  4. spacer, before exercise?
  5. 3 puffs, see doc.
  6. PRN
  7. prolong labour 
  8. ...
  9. ...

33

simvastatin

  1.  HMG-CoA reductase 
  2. ...
  3. GI, fatigue, muscle pain, rhabdomyalosis 
  4. LFT, lipids
  5. 20mg-80mg
  6. congenital,  breast feeding avoid
  7. monitor
  8. reduce
  9. ...

34

valproate

  1.  anticonvulsant
  2. epilepsy, anorexia nervosa, panic attack, anxiety disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, migraine and bipolar disorder
  3. suicidality, GI, twitching, flu-like symptoms, SJS
  4. start 600mg, increase 200mg /3d.
  5. LFT FBC, coagulation 1st 6months
  6. 1-2g/d
  7. malformations! breast feeding okay.
  8. avoid
  9. reduce dose

35

warfarin

  1.    ...
  2. ...
  3. bleeding, GI, jaundice, skin necrosis, 
  4. start 2-5mg/d +hep 6d, adjust>  12 week check.
  5. INR 2-3
  6. maintainenence 2-10mg
  7. malformations! Haemorrhage risk
  8. monitor INR
  9. monitor INR