Flashcards in France Deck (119)
What is the largest appellation in Bordeaux? What area does it cover and what type of wines are allowed
Bordeaux AOC. it covers the entire region and allows red, sweet and dry white, rose, and sparkling wines.
What AOC covers the same area as bordeaux but has slightly tighter restrictions
Bordeaux Superieur. It can be used for reds and sweet whites
What are teh Bordeaux appellations on the left Bank Medoc?
Haut Medoc (red)
What are the Bordeaux appellations on the left bank Graves
Graves (red and White)
Graves Superieures (sweet white)
Pessac-Leognan (red, white)
Barsac (sweet white)
Sauternes (sweet white)
What is the regional AOC in Bordeaux that only allows sparkling wine
Cremant de Bordeaux
What are the bordeaux appellations in Entre-Deaux-Mers?
Bordeaux-Haut-Benague (sweet white),
Cadillac (sweet white),
Cotes de Bordeaux-St.-Macaire (sweet white), Entre-Deux-Mers-Haut-Benauge (sweet white), Graves-de-Vayres (r/sweet white),
Loupiac (sweet white),
Ste.-Croix-du-Mont (sweet white),
Ste.-Foy-Bordeaux (r/sweet white)
What are the Bordeaux Appellations on the Right Bank - Libourne?
St.-Emilion Grand Cru (r),
St.-Georges-St. Emilion (r)
What are the Bordeaux Appellations on the Right Bank - Cotes?
Cotes de Bordeaux (r,w,sweet white), Cotes de Bourg (r/w)
What are the 5 First Growths according to the Bordeaux Classification of 1855? Which was moved in 1973 from 2nd to 1st growth?
Ch. Haut-Brion (Pessac, Graves), Ch. Lafite-Rothschild (Paulliac), Ch. Lator (Pauilc), Ch. Margaux (Margaux), Ch. Mouton-Rothschild (Pauillac)**this was the one that was elevated
2 of the 15 producers with premier grand cru classe status are considered superior to the others and granted "A" category. Which 2 are these?
Ch. Ausone and Ch. Cheval Blanc
Who is eligible for premier grand cru classe status?
Only producers in the St.-Emilion Grand Cru AOC
Which appellations can market their methode traditionelle sparkling wines under the Fines Bulles trademark?
Anjou Mousseux, Cremant de Loire, Montlouis-sur-Loire, Samur Brut, Touraine Mousseux, and Vouvrey. (Fines Bulles "fine bubbles" are a specialty of the Central Loire)
What appellation covers the entire region of the Loire Valley?
Vin de Pays du Val de Loire (PGI level)
4 AOCs in the Pays Nantais are all called what?
Muscadet. The largest being Muscadet de Sevre-et-Maine
What are 2 regional rose appellations in the Anjou?
Rose d'Anjou (usually mostly Grolleau), Cabernet d'Anjou (restricted to the two cabs, both somewhat sweet)
Where are dry roses likely to come from in the Loire Valley?
Rose de Loire appellation (located in the Anjou and Touraine)
What is the primary sweet wine area of Anjou and what are the two better known subregions?
Coteaux du Layon AOC, subregions being Bonnexaux and Quarts-de-Chaume. All three use 100% Chenin Blanc and produce long-lived dessert wines thanks to botrytis
What is the Anjou's premier dry white wine appellation? What type of grapes are used?
Savennieres 100% Chenin Blanc
What is the Saumur AOC known for?
What is the main sparkling wine appellation in the Saumur area?
Saumur Brut (may also be seen as Saumur Mousseux or simply Saumur)
What is Cremant de Loire?
A sparkling wine that can come from anywhere in Anjou or Touraine.
What regions in the Loire Valley are renowned for excellent red wines (usually at least 90% Cab Franc)?
Saumur-Champigny (red only appellation in Anjou), Bourgueil and Chinon (both in Touraine).
What appellation uses 100% Chenin Blanc and makes wines ranging in style from dry to sweet?
Which two appellations make mousseux and petillant (both are sparkling) wines?
Vouvray and Montlouis-sur-Loire
What are two regional appellations for Touraine? What do they produce?
Touraine AOC for red, white, and rose. Touraine Mousseux for sparkling wines.
What are AC Touraine white and red wines typically made from?
Whites are typically 100% Sauvignon Blanc, and the reds are as likely Gamay or Pinot Noir as Cabernet.
What grapes are the wines in the Cheverny AOC primarily made from?
Sauvignon Blanc and Gamay
What are two appellations famous in the Loire Valley for their classic, 100% Sauvignon Blanc wines?
Sancerre on the west bank and Pouilly-Fume across the river on the east bank.
How does Pouilly-Fume differ from Pouilly-Fuisse?
Pouilly-Fume is on the east bank of the Loire Valley and made from 100% Sav Blanc. Pouilly-Fuisse is from the Maconnais area of Burgundy and made from 100% Chardonnay.
What type of wine do Quincy and Reuilly AOCs make?
Sauvignon Blanc and Reuilly also makes some Pinot Noir.
There are 51 grand cru vineyards in Alsace. These vineyards have a separate appellation. What is this appellation called and what grape varieties are they allowed to grow?
Alsace Grand Cru. They are allowed to grow only Gewürztraminer, Muscat, Pinot Gris, and Riesling.
What 3 appellations are in Alsace?
Alsace AOC, Alsace Grand Cru, Cremant d'Alsace
What is the Alsace AOC permitted to make?
Wine from 100% of any of eight grape varieties: Riesling, Gewürztraminer, Pinot Gris, Auxerrois, Pinot Noir, Sylvaner, Muscat, and Chasselas.
What is Cremant d'Alsace permitted to make?
Sparkling wine made from Pinot Blanc, Pinot Gris, Riesling, Chardonnay, Pinot Noir, and/or Auxerrois using the traditional method.
What is the "most important" appellation in Burgundy, covering the entire region?
AC Bourgogne, a generic appellation for white, red, or rose wines from anywhere in the area.
What appellation in Burgundy covers the entire region and is only permitted to make white and rose sparkling wines made by the traditional method?
Cremant de Bourgogne
What appellation in Burgundy covers the entire region and is only permitted for wines from the Aligote grape variety?
How many appellations does the Chablis district have, what are they, and what grapes are permitted?
3. Chablis Grand Cru, Chablis AOC, and Petit Chablis. Chardonnay is the only permitted grape.
What are the seven parcels (from largest to smallest) in the Chablis Grand Cru?
Les Clos, Vaudesir, Valmur, Blanchot, Bougros, Les Preuses, and Grenouilles.
What is the Cote de Nuit the "spiritual home" for?
Pinot Noir, which makes up 90% of its production.
The Cote de Nuits has 24 grand cru vineyards all of which are for red wine except for what?
Musigny which also produces a tiny amount of Chardonnay.
What are the 8 commune appellations of the Cote de Nuits?
Marsannay, Fixin, Gevrey-Chambertin, Morey-St.-Denis, Chambolle-Musigny, Vougeot, Vosne-Romanee, and Nuits-St.-Georges.
What are some of the best-known grands crus of the Cote de Nuits?
Chambertin, Musigny, Clos de Vougeot, Romanee-Conti
What is the world's most expensive wine?
The Cote de Beaune is known as a white wine region and 7/8 of its grands crus produce only white wine. Which grands cru produces red?
Corton which is mostly red with a small amount of white.
What are the primary communes of the Cote de Beaune?
Aloxe-Corton, Pernand-Vergelesses, Beaune, Pommard, Valnay, Meursault, Puligny-Montrachet, and Chassagne-Montrachet
What are Corton, Charlemagne, Corton-Charlemagne, and Montrachet?
Some of the grands crus in the Cote de Beaune.
There are 5 communal AOCs in the Cote de Chalonnaise district. What is the largest?
What do Pouilly-Fuisse and St. Veran have in common?
They are both villages in the Maconnais that have been elevated to communal AOC status for 100% chardonnay wines.
What is the districtwide appellation in the Maconnais?
Where does the largest portion of Maconnais wine fall under? What can they produce?
The Macon-Villages appellation which is for white wine only.
What grape is the Beaujolais region dedicated to?
Gamay which takes up 95% of the region
What is the most significant difference between Beaujolais and Burgundy in regards to terroir?
Beaujolais has granitic soils that are ideal for Gamay but not for Pinot Noir or Chardonnay, rather than the limestone that defines Burgundy.
What are the 10 Beaujolais Crus
St.-Amour, Julienas, Chenas, Moulin-a-Vent, Fleurie, Chiroubles, Morgon, Regnie, Cote de Brouilly, Brouilly
What are the first and second producers of AOC level wines in France?
#1 - Bordeaux #2 - Rhone
What are the grape varieties in northern Rhone?
Syrah is the only red variety. The whites are Viognier, Marsanne, and Roussane.
What are the grape varieties in southern Rhone?
2 dozen grape varieties are allowed and wines are normally based on a blend of at least three or four. The most important is Grenache (2/3s of red grapes). Other reds are Syrah, Carignan, Mourvedre, and Cinsaut. The dominant white is also Grenache Blanc, a white mutation of Grenache. Other whites include Clairette, Viognier, Ugni Blanc, Marsanne, etc.
What are the 8 appellations in northern Rhone?
Chateau-Grillet (w), Condrieu (w), Cornas (r), Cote-Rotie (r), Crozes-Hermitage (r/w), Hermitage (r/w), St.-Joseph (r/w), St.-Peray (w/sp)
Which northern Rhone appellation requires 100% syrah?
What is the most important white wine of northern Rhone?
The Viognier of Condrieu
What % of Rhone's production does southern Rhone account for?
Which regional appellation covers most of the southern Rhone area and accounts for more than half the Rhone Valley output?
Cotes du Rhone
What is the most famous southern Rhone appellation?
What two appellations in southern Rhone make vin doux naturels?
Muscat de Beaumes-de-Venise and Rasteau
Which AOC in southern Rhone is stictly for rose made mostly from Grenache and Cinsaut and considered one of the finest dry roses of France?
What are two of the largest appellations found outside the Cotes du Rhone boundaries; producing mainly red wine but also some rose and white?
Cotes du Ventoux and Costieres de Nimes
What are the 8 crus in southern Rhone (each have their own AOC)?
Cotes du Rhone/Cotes du Rhones Villages, Rasteau (rfortified), Gigondas (r/rose), Beaumes-de-Venise (wfortified), Vacqueyras (r/w/rose), Chateauneuf-du-Pape (r/w), Lirac (r/w/rose), Tavel (rose)
What is the "umbrella region" that covers the entire Languedoc-Roussillon?
Vin de Pays d'Oc
Which AOC covers the entire Languedoc-Roussillon? When was it established?
Languedoc AOC established in 2007
What must growers do in order to upgrade their Vin de Pays d'Oc wines to AOC status?
Use grapes traditional to the region; including Grenache, Syrah, Mourvedre, Cinsaut, Carignan, and various white grapes; red, white, and rose are permitted.
Which AOC of Languedoc-Roussillon is the largest in terms of production?
What are the 3 big AOCs in Languedoc-Roussillon and what do they allow?
Corbieres, Minervois, and Cotes du Roussillon. They all allow red, white, and rose, but Corbieres and Minervois produce mostly red white while Cotes du Roussillon focuses on rose.
Which subregion of Languedoc-Roussillon is for red wine only?
Cotes du Roussillon-Villages
What is the largest AOC in Provence
Cotes de Provence
What is the best-known communcal AOC in Provence? What does it produce?
Bandol which produces deeply colored and aromatic reds and fine dry roses principally from Mourvedre.
What is the regional vin de pays area in Provence and what does Provence pride itself on?
The Vin de Pays de Mediterranee. Provence prides itself on its roses (which make up a majority of the production of its major appellations).
What is an Edelzwicker?
Blends of the following varieties in Alsace: Riesling, Gewurztraminer, Pinot Gris, Auxerrois, Pinot Noir, Sylvaner, Muscat, and Chasselas
What is Chateau d'Yquem?
t is the one and only "first superior growth" classified in 1855 as a "sweet wine" from Sauternes
What are the wines like in Sauternes?
Mostly semillon based with a small amount of sav blanc. They are provided the perfect growing conditions for botrytis (known in french as pourriture noble). They are thick, intensely sweet and (if botrytized) have a notable honeyed character.
Cotes de Bordeaux, a new appellation created in 2009, combines four disjointed regions, what are they?
Bordeaux Cotes de Francs, Cotes de Castillon, Premieres Cotes de Blaye, and Premieres Cotes de Bordeaux
True or False: France is the top producer and consumer of wine
False; France is the top consumer, but Italy is the top producer
What is the Massif Central?
The central highlands of the country of France
Which river forms part of the boarder with Germany?
What is the warmest part of France?
The ara comprising of the Roussillon, Languedoc, Rhone, and Provence regions (plus the island of Corsica in the Mediterranean itself). This has a Mediterranean climate, with ample sunshine and little rainfall during the growing season. They produce wines that are sometimes hard to distinguish from New World wines: full-flavored and full-bodied with moderate acidity. Reds are heavily predominant
Which counties (departements) in France experience strong maritime influence?
The western part of France is exposed to the chilly and often stormy Atlantic Ocean and experience this type of climate. There is less sunshine than in the Mediterranean coast and summers are cooler.
What type of wine does Bordeaux (located in the southwest of France) make?
The temperatures are still high enough to produce full-bodied wines, though with higher acidity than those of the Mediterranean. Reds continue to dominate.
What type of wine is made along the English Channel coast?
The English Channel coast is considered too cold for extensive viticulture.
What is the climate like in the central and northeastern sections of France?
These areas have a more continental climate. Because there is little protection from the north, winters are quite cold and even summers dont have a great deal of hot weather. The northern third of France is too cold and wet to grow grapes.
Where are most vineyards planted in the central and northeastern sections of France?
They are planted in river valleys - in particular, those of the Loire, Seine, Saone, and Rhone rivers - which provide some protection from storms and funnel milder weather in from the coasts.
What are the Vosges Mountains?
A small north-south range in northeastern France. They provide a barrier to storms coming from the west and shields the vineyards of Alsace, which are therefore warmer and drier than, for example, Champagne or Chablis at about the same latitude. As a result, grapes ripen to a much greater degree and the wines of Alsace can be quite high in alcohol
What is the top planted white grape variety in France? What is it primarily used for?
Ugni Blanc (also known as Trebbiano); it is used almost exclusively for making brandy (Cognac and Armagnac) rather than wine
Where is the majority of Chardonnay planted in France?
There is more acreage under vine in Languedoc-Roussillon than in Champagne.
Where is Muscat primarily planted in France and what is it primarily used for?
Planted mostly in the South where it is mainly used for fortified wines (vins doux naturals). Examples would be Banyuls in Languedoc-Roussillon and Muscat de Beaumes-de-Venise in Southern Rhone
What are three warm climate red grapes found in France?
Grenache, Syrah, and Carignan
Where is Carignan grown?
Only in the South
Where is Grenache found?
Only in the South; it is a primary imgredient of most southern Rhone blends and many wines of Languedoc-Roussillon and Provence
What is the top planted red grape variety in France? Does it beat Ugni Blanc?
Merlot; yes, with close to 300,000 acres, Merlot beats Ugni Blanc at 200,000 acres.
How much of French wine production falls under the "vin de table" category?
Only about 1/8 of all French wine. Most is consumed locally
How much production does the vin de pays category account for? What category does this equate to in the EU system?
More than a 3rd of French wine. In the EU system; these are considered table wines with geographical indication (PGI).
What is the top planted variety in Bordeaux?
What is the top planted white variety in Bordeaux?
What does claret refer to?
red table wine produced in the Bordeaux region (known as claret in British parlance)
What is the top planted variety in the Loire?
What is the top planted white in the Loire?
What is the top planted grape in Champagne?
What is the top planted grape in Alsace?
What is the top planted grape in Burgundy?
What is the top planted red grape in Burgundy?
Pinot Noir; most of it located in the Cote de Nuits
What is the top planted grape variety in Rhone?
What is the top grape variety in Languedoc-Roussillon?
Where did the Melon grape originate? Does it still grow there?
It originated in Burgundy though it no longer grows there. Found mainly in the Pays Nantais region of the Loire Valley.
Which region is located between the Vosges Mountains and the Rhine River?
What German wine region is located directly across the river from Alsace?
What is the climate like in Alsace?
It is a cold continental due to the northerly location and distance from the ocean. However, it is one of the driest parts of France as a result of the rain shadow created by the Vosges. The mountains block rain and humidity and give the region an abundance of sunshine. The sunny, dry summers allow grapes in Alsace to ripen much more fully than those of Champagne and Chablis to the west.
What does selection de grains nobles indicate? What region is it associated with?
The region of Alsace; indicates a sweet, Sauternes-style, botrytized wine.
What does vendage tardive indicate? What region is it associated with?
The region of Alsace; it is produced from late-harvested grapes which may or may not have been affected by botrytis.
What is an Edelzwicker?
It is a blended wine. Most wines in Alsace are 100% their grape variety; however, blends are allowed (though not as common) and labeled "edelzwicker"
What are the 8 appellations in northern Rhone? List them from north to south.
Cote Rotie, Condrieu, Chateau-Grillet, St. Joseph, Crozes-Hermitage, Hermitage, Cornas, St. Peray