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Flashcards in Australia and New Zealand Deck (53):

How does Australia rank among the New World countries in terms of wine exporting?

Australia is the largest wine exporter of the New World countries, fourth in the world after Italy, France, and Spain.


Where in Australia is wine production heavily concentrated?

In the southeastern quadrant


Australia's climate?

On average the country is hot and dry and relatively inhospitable to grapes. More moderate climates are found along parts of the south coast, in Australia's primary mountain chain (The Great Dividing Range), and on the island of Tasmania.


What is Australia's coolest wine growing region?

The island of Tasmania which is surrounded by the frigid Southern Ocean.


What is the top grape variety in Australia?

Shiraz (the same grape as the Syrah of the Rhone Valley in France)


What are the next most prominent red grapes in Australia?

Cab Sav and to a lesser extent Merlot. Both of which are frequently bottled as single-variety wines or blended with Shiraz.


What is the top white grape variety in Australia?

Chardonnay. No other white variety comes close to Chardonnay in importance, but the next most common is Semillon


What is Gordo Blanco?

(Muscat of Alexandria) which is grown in the hotter areas and often used in fortified wines.


The place-of-origin system in Australia is similar to which country?

The US; in that the appellations - officially known as GIs (geographical indications) - are simply areas on a map. They place no restrictions on the viticultural or vinicultural procedures of grape growers or winemakers within their boundaries.


What are the categories and subcategories in the Australian GI System?

Multistate Zone (south eastern australia), State (New South Wales), Zone (Big Rivers), Regions (Murray Darling), SubRegions


When is some sort of homogeneity and distinctiveness from a wine growing standpoint found in the Australian GI System? Who is in charge of this process?

The small place-of-origin areas (regions or subregions, perhaps?), and the quasi-gvernmental Australian Wine and Brandy Corporation are in charge of this process.


In order to list a single GI on a wine label, what % of the wine's grapes must have been grown in that appellation?



What country is first to require a "Best Before" date on wines?



Is Australia responsible for any dessert wines?

Yes. They include botrytized Rieslings and Semillons known as "stickies," as well as late harvested Muscats.


Is Australia responsible for any fortified wines?

Yes. Port-style fortified wines are an Australian specialty, made from Muscat or various combinations of red grapes.


Which Super GI connects almost all of Australia's vineyards (apart from those of Western Australia) into one zone?

South Eastern Australia.


What is Hunter Valley known for? What State is it in?

Hunter Valley is located just north of Sydney (in New South Wales) and is hot and humid, made suitable for winegrowing by the cooling effect of the afternoon sea breezes. It is particularly known for it's Semillon.


What is Mudgee known for? What State is it in?

Mudgee is located in New South Wales on the west side of the Great Dividing Range with vineyards approaching 2,000 feet in elevation. It is known for it's Cab Sav.


What is Tasmania known for?

In the coolest wine region of Australia, Tasmania has a reputation for high quality wines, known for Chardonnay, Pinot Noir, and sparkling wine production.


What is Rutherglen known for? What State is it in?

Located in Victoria, Rutherglen has a markedly continental climate that brings very hot summer days while frosts are common in the spring and fall Known for fortified Muscat wines and big reds, especially from Shiraz.


Where are Yarra Valley and Mornington Penninsula located? What two varietals are they noted for?

Both located in Victoria on the eastern outskirts of Melbourne, are cool growing areas with high humidity but little summer rain. Noted for PInot Noir and Chardonnay.


What is Heathcote known for? What State is it in?

Heathcote has a distinctive climate influenced by cool winds that descend from the Mt. Camel Range and moderate the summer temperatures. It is known for premium Shiraz. It is located in Victoria.


What two regions does Heathcote lie between?

Bendigo and Goulburn Valley regions.


What is the best known of the five regions of the Limestone Coast zone?



What type of soil does Coonawarra have and what varietal is it famous for?

Terra Rossa which is a bright red soil over a limestone base. This soil combination is famous for it's Cabernet Sauvignons.


What four regions surround Adelaide in South Australia?

Barossa Valley, Clare Valley, Eden Valley, and McLaren Vale.


What is the climate of the entire area around Adelaide?

Mediterranean. Generally warm and dry, becoming relatively cool in higher elevation vineyards. Cool breezes regularly blow in from the ocean.


What grape varietal are McLaren Vale and Barossa known for?



What grape varietal are Eden and Clare Valley known for?



What state is Margaret River located in? What is it known for?

Located in Western Australia, at the southwestern extremity, the Margaret River experiences constant sea breezes from the Indian and Southern oceans that keep the area very cool. Known for white wines.


Which region has the largest volume of wine production in Australia?

Riverland in South Australia


Which region is physically the largest of those in Australia?

Riverina in New South Wales


Which three regions are located in the fertile interior flatlands? What is unique about this area which makes it possible to produce almost half of the country's wine?

Riverland, Riverina, and Murray Darling. Irrigation makes it possible to produce this much wine; although the main output is bulk.


Which region in the interior flatlands is known for producing botrytis affected Semillons?



What is the primary topographic feature of New Zealand?

The Southern Alps, a high mountain chain that runs the length of the South Island along the western coast.


Where are most of the vineyards of New Zealand found?

In the rain shadow of the Southern Alps or North Island volcanoes, along the east coast of both islands, or in the warmer northern part of the North island.


What are is the main red and white grape variety in New Zealand?

Overall, Sav Blanc is the main grape variety in NZ. Pinot Noir is the second most planted grape (most planted red).


Where are red varieties such as Cab Sav, Merlot, and Syrah planted in New Zealand?

In the warmest areas such as in Hawke's Bay and Gisborne.


If New Zealand is to list a place of origin, vintage, or single variety on a wine label, what % must come from that place, year, or grape variety?



What region is the home to more than half of New Zealand's vines, is responsible for over 85% of Sav Blanc acreage, and is the largest producer of Pinot Noir?



What is the self-proclaimed "Chardonnay Capital of New Zealand"?



Which region is the second largest of New Zealand's wine regions and one of the warmest?

Hawkes Bay


What are the two subregions of Wellington? What are they renowned for?

Wairarapa and Martinborough. Located at the southernmost part of the North Island, they are renowned for some of New Zealand's finest Pinot Noirs.


Where is Nelson located and what varietal is it noted for?

Located adjacent to Marlborough on the South Island, Nelson is noted for Sauvignon Blanc.


What is the most southerly wine region in the world? What grape varietal does this region focus heavily on?

Central Otago which focuses on Pinot Noir


What are the 6 regions of New Zealand's North Island (north to south)?

Northland, Auckland, Waikato/Bay of Plenty, Gisborne, Hawke's Bay, Wairarana


What are the 4 regions of New Zealand's South Island (north to south)?

Marlborough, Nelson, Canterbury, Central Otago


Which region is closest to Wellington?



Which region encompasses Christchurch?



Which country is the top producing winemaker in Asia?

China, with Japan coming in second.


How does China rank among the wine producing/wine consuming countries?

It is the world's seventh largest wine producer and fifth largest wine-consuming country (however as much as 2/3 of this volume is made from grain rather than grapes).


What steps has China taken to ensure their place in the wine world?

They have seen considerable new plantings of international varieties, increased investment in modern winery technology, and focused more on the quality of the wine. They have also made sure Hong Kong abolished its high tariff on wine in a move to position itself as the wine commerce hub for all of Asia.


Does Japan have a large export market for wine?

No. Their wines are rarely exported and consumed locally. Japanese consumption runs more strongly towards sake.