Flashcards in US North America Deck (75):
What % of wine production in America does California account for?
What are the primary winegrowing latitudes? How does the US fall into this?
30-50 and the US territory is almost entirely within these latitudes.
What word is commonly used to describe the flavor of grapes from the species labrusca?
Fox or Foxy
Which four grapes are referred to as native American hybrids and have characteristics similar to those of labrusca vines?
Catawba, Delaware, Niagara, Concord
Two other native american hybrid grapes that are not of the species labrusca are?
Norton and Scuppernong
What are three french-american hybrids that served as a temporary solution to the phylloxera problem in France?
Seyval Blanc, Vidal Blanc, and the red Chambourcin
Which two grapes can be considered unique to the US in that there are very little to no other wines made with these varieties around the world?
Zinfandel and Petite Sirah
Who is the agency in charge of alcoholic beverage control at the national level in the US?
The Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau (TTB) of the Department of the Treasury
What does AVA stand for? How many are in the US and how many of those are in California?
American Viticultural Area; 200 are in the US and 110 of those are in CA
What 8 things are wine labels required to have on them in the US?
1) a brand name 2) the class or type of wine (can be implied and not explicit) 3) alcohol content (table wine means it's less than 14%) 4) the name or address of the bottler or importer 5) place of origin 6) the net content (volume) of the bottle 7) a sulfite statement (if it contains 10 ppms or more sulfur dioxide) 8) a health warning
What is a "semi-generic" wine?
A wine that is named so that it clearly refers to European wine regions "american chablis" or "california white port" etc. These are allowed in the US but the EU will not allow such wines to be imported.
What is meant by "naturally fermented in this bottle" vs. "naturally fermented in the bottle"?
"Naturally fermented in this bottle" means the wine was made by the traditional method while "naturally fermented in the bottle" indicates a wine that was made by the transfer method.
How would you recogniaze a sparkling wine in the US made by tank-method?
It will say "fermented outside the bottle"
What variation of alcoholic content does the TTB allow?
What variation of alcoholic content does the TTB allow for dessert or sparkling wines?
What phrase would indicate wines from a negociant vs. wines from someone who grew and made the wine?
A wine from a negociant might say "blended, cellared, and bottled by" while a wine from a bottler involved in making the wine would state "grown, produced, and bottled by"
If a US wine chooses to include a vintage date on the bottle, what three rules must they follow?
1) for wines from an AVA or foreign equivalent appellation, a minimum of 95% of the wine must come from that year 2) if the plage of origin is listed as a US state or country or the equivalent of this in another country (french vin de pays or italian igt) 85% of the grapes must come from that year. 3) it must have a place of origin more specific than a country. "American wine" or basic table wine from Spain would not be allowed to display a vintage date.
What does the term "meritage" indicate?
It is meant to symbolize a white or red Bordeaux blend
If a single grape variety appears on a US wine label, what % of wine must come from that grape?
What are three exceptions to the 75% grape variety labelling rule?
1) the minimum is reduced to 51% for native american grape varieties. 2) oregon requires 90% 3) if no one grape variety constitutes 75%, it can be varietally labeled as long as all the varieties are named.
What is the minimum % of a single grape variety that a wine must contain in order to be varietally labeled and exported to the EU?
85%; however, the EU and US formed an agreement that allows varietally labeled US wines to be exported to the EU with only 75%
From largest to smallest, what are the 5 places of origin in the US based on size?
Country, state, county, AVA, vineyard
What is the minimum content that must come from a country, state, county, ava, and specific vineyard in the US?
Country (75% and 100% if you are naming three contiguous states) State 75% (except CA which is 100%, up to three contiguous counties also 100%), County 75%, AVA 85%, specific vineyard 95%
What three rules must the US follow in order to label a wine "estate bottled"?
1) the grapes must come from one or more vineyards owned or leased by the winery 2) the vineyard(s) must be within a single AVA 3) the winery must also be located in that AVA
What are 5 broad regional AVAs in CA?
North Coast (napa, sonoma, mendocino, and lake counties north of San Fran Bay), Sierra Foothills (in the Sierra Nevada mountains east of Sacramento), San Fransisco Bay (covering the area from San Francisco and Oakland south to Santa Cruz), Central Coast (Pacific Coast counties between Oakland and SB), South Coast (below LA)
What are these 5 regional AVAs sometimes referred to as?
What % of California's wine production does Napa account for?
4% - though it does much more by dollar volume
What is the climate like in Napa?
The air works its way north off the chilly waters of San Pablo Bay which brings frequent morning fogs and keeps the southern part of the couny significantly cooler than farther north.
What is the climate in CA?
Mediterranean that rarely brings rainfall or even clouds during summer and harvest season.
What are the 15 AVAs in Napa (north to south)?
Calistoga, Howell Mountain, Diamond Mountain, Spring Mountain District, Chiles Valley, St. Helena, Rutherford, Oakville, Atlas Peak, Stags Leap District, Yountville, Mount Veeder, Oak Knoll, Wild Horse Valley, Carneros
The "heart" of Napa, stretching from north from the city of Napa includes (list north to south)?
Calistoga, St. Helena, Rutherford, Oakville, Stags Leap District, Yountville
What grape does exceptionally well in the "heart" of Napa region?
What two AVAs are located below Napa city in the cooler part of the county? What grapes are primarily planted here?
Oak Knoll District of Napa County and Carneros. Chard and Pinot Noir are mostly planted in these AVAs.
What three AVAs are at higher-elevation appellations in Napa?
Spring Mountain District and Mt. Veeder are in the Mayacamas Mountains west of the valley and Atlas Peak AVA is in the Vaca Mountains to the east.
What % of Sonoma's white wines are Chardonnay?
Which Sonoma AVA is located in the south and has a cool climate?
Sonoma Valley AVA
Which AVAs does the Sonoma Valley AVA encompass?
Bennett Valley AVA, Sonoma Mountain AVA, Carneros AVA
In addition to the Sonoma Valley AVA, what other appellation is known as a cool region? What subregion does it encompass?
Russian River Valley AVA which encompasses Green Valley
What grapes do well in the Sonoma Valley and Russian River Valley AVA?
Pinot Noir and Chardonnay
Which two AVAs are known to have a moderate climate and produce Zinfandels and more robust Chardonnays?
Chalk Hill and Dry Creek Valley
Which two AVAs are located in Sonoma and known for their very warm climate and their production of Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot?
Alexander Valley and Knights Valley
What is part of the North Coast AVA and has mostly mountanious and forested regions?
What is considered one of the coolest winegrowing areas of California and the most famous AVA in Medonico?
Which varietals can primarily be found in Mendocino?
Cab Sav, Zinfandel, Petite Sirah, and Rhone varities
What are the three main counties in the Central Coast?
Monterey, San Luis Obispo, and Santa Barbara
What is the primary appellation in Monterey?
Which appellation is extremely hot and known for their Bordeaux and (increasingly) Rhone varieties?
Paso Robles AVA
Which three AVAs are part of San Luis Obispo?
Paso Robles, Edna Valley, Arroyo Grande Valley AVAs
Which three AVAs are part of the Santa Barbara region? Which has the warmest climate of the three?
Santa Maria Valley, Sta. Rita Hills. and Santa Ynez Valley (Santa Ynez being the warmest of the three)
What fertile region is the source of half of California's wine grapes?
San Joaquin Valley in the Central Valley
What is the principle appellation in the Central Valley and what grape varietals has it gained a reputation for?
Lodi AVA which ahs gained a reputation for Zinfandel as well as Rhone, Spanish, and Portuguese varieties.
Which AVA covers a scattering of mostly high-elevation vineyards on the western slopes of the rugged Sierra Nevadas east of Sacramento and the Central Valley?
Sierra Foothills AVA
What is the largest AVA within the South Coast AVA?
Temecula Valley AVA
Which mountain range divides Washington in half? How do the climates differ on both sides?
Washington is divided by the Cascades range into a cool and rainy western part and a zone to the east with desertlike conditions with very hot summers, cold winters, and little participation.
Where are the majority of Washingtons vineyards located?
To the east of the Cascades
Which two grapes are the leaders in Washington and which two draw the highest critical acclaim?
Chard and Cab are the leaders, but Merlot and Syrah draw critical acclaim. Washington is also America's primary site for Riesling.
What is one of the AVAs found in Washington that happens to be one of the largest in the country?
Columbia Valley AVA; it takes up most of the state's vineyard land, essentially guaranteeing that every Washington wine qualifies for AVA status.
Which three AVAs are located in Washington and Oregon?
Walla Walla AVA, Columbia Valley AVA, Columbia Gorge AVA
What are the 11 AVAs in Washington?
Columbia Valley, Columbia Gorge, Horse Heaven Hills, Lake Chelan, Puget Sound, Rattlesnake Hills, Red Mountain, Snipes Mountain, Wahluke Slope, Walla Walla Valley, Yakima Valley
What is known as a very warm AVA in Washington?
Wahluke Slope AVA
Which AVAs are located between the Yakima and Columbia rivers?
Horse Heaven Hills and Yakima Valley AVAs
If a wine comes from Washington and uses a Washington appellation on their label, what % of grapes must be from that region?
Where are most of Oregon's wineries located in relation to the Cascades?
Unlike Washington, where most wineries are to the east of the Cascades, most wineries in Oregon are located on the west.
What is the premier grape variety in Oregon?
Pinot Noir which takes up almost 60% of vineyard acreage
What is the topw hite variety in Oregon?
What are the six sub-AVAs that fall within the Willamette Valley AVA in Oregon?
Chehalem Mountains, Ribbon Ridge, Dundee Hills, Eola-Amity Hills, McMinnville, Yamhill-Carlton District
Which two AVAs are found in the Southern Oregon AVA?
Rogue Valley and Umpqua Valley
Where are Applegate Valley and Red Hill Douglas County located?
Both in the Southern Oregon AVA; Applegate Valley is in Rogue Valley while Red Hill Douglas County is in the Umpqua Valley
Which state is second after California in terms of wine production?
What is the predominant grape variety in New York?
What is the primary wine-producing region in New York?
Finger Lakes AVA
Approximately 85% of Ontario's vineyards lie where?
In the Niagara Peninsula appellation
What is the premier growing area in British Columbia?
Okanagan Valley which is planted almost exclusively with vinifera varieties, led by Merlot, Pinot Gris, Chardonnay, and Pinot Noir.
What is the voluntary European-style appellation system that certifies quality wines in Canada?
Vitners Quality Alliance (VQA)