Flashcards in Italy Deck (100):
What is Italy's most ubiquitous white grape variety?
Trebbiano (also known as Ugni Blanc)
What is the most widely planted grape in Italy; found in many regions but known primarily as the "grape of Tuscany"?
Out of the 20 Italian administrative regions, which produces the most wine overall?
Veneto (almost 19% of the country's total as well as the largest quantity of DOC/DOCG wine and more than a third of wine at IGT level)
What red varieties are most closely associated with the Veneto?
Corvina, Rondinella, and Molinara
What is the primary white grape of the Veneto?
What is another indigenous white variety that is the basis of the sparkling wine industry in the Veneto?
When can a wine be referred to as Prosecco?
If it is sourced from the Conegliano Valdobbiadene or Colli Asolani or neighbouring provinces (Rovigo, Verona, Trento, and Bolzano) if those producers have been bottling Prosecco in the past 5 consecutive years.
What dried-grape wine, both red and white, is the Veneto region noted for?
The Amarone della Valpolicella is the model for what technique?
An appassimento wine that is allowed to ferment completely dry, resulting in a wine with 15-16% alcohol.
Out of the 7 DOCGs in the Veneto, which is known for the "most distinguished" wine?
Amarone della Valpolicella DOCG
Which two DOCGs in the Veneto are considered a style of Valpolicella DOC?
Amarone della Valpolicella DOCG and Recioto della Valpolicella DOCG
What producers in the Veneto have the right to the "classico" designation?
Producers in the heart of the original, historic growing district.
What does "superior" on the Valpolicella label mean?
It means that the wine has been aged at least one year and that its minimum alcohol requirement is a bit higher (12 rather than 11%)
What DOC and DOCG are produced just to the west of Valpolicella along Lake Garda? What do these wines have in common with Valpolicella blends?
Bardolino DOC and Badolino Superiore DOCG. They are all blends of Corvina, Rondinella, Molinara, and possibly a small amount of other varieties.
Bardolino is also made as a chiaretto. What does this mean?
What is the most preeminent white wine DOC in the Veneto? How much production volume does it represent in Italy?
Soave DOC. It represents the third largest volume in Italy, after Chianti and Asti.
What are the DOCGs in the Soave DOC? What is the main grape variety?
Soave Superiore and Revioto di Soave DOCGs. The main ingredient is Garganega, comprising at least 70% of the wine.
What two newly elevated DOCGs make sparkling wine in the Veneto region?
Conegliano Valdobbiadene and Colli Asolani
What process/grapes are used to make sparkling wine in the Vonegliano Valdobbiadene and Colli Asolani DOCGs?
The Charmat process using at least 85% Prosecco grapes.
What DOC in the Veneto is known for their traditional, pleasant, light, white wines made from Trebbiano?
What do the Piave and Lison-Pramaggiore DOCs have in common?
Both located in the Veneto and are geared toward new plantings of international grape varieties. These two large DOCs allow an assortment of single-variety wines from new and traditional grapes.
How many IGTs are available in the Veneto? What is the general IGT and which one also takes in Friuli-VEneia Giulia and Trentino-Alto Adige?
10 IGTs are available. The general IGT is simply called Veneto IGT. The larger being Delle Venezie IGT.
The Piedmont region is known as the home of what two "great red wines"?
Barolo and Barbaresco
What is the most famous grape in Piedmont?
Nebbiolo (tannic, high acid and from the Italian nebbia meaning fog)
What is the most widely planted grape in Piedmont?
Barbera (low tannin)
What are the leading white varieties in Piedmont?
Moscato, Arneis, and Cortese
How many IGTs does Piedmont have?
What is the most general appellation in Piedmont? WHat does it cover and what does it allow?
Piemonte DOC which covers the entire region and allows still and especially sparkling wines from more than a dozen grape varieties.
What DOC is smaller than Piemonte but still encompasses much of the prime winegrowing land of the Piedmont region?
Which two DOCGs produce the two highest regarded wines of Piedmont from 100% Nebbiolo?
Barolo and Barbaresco DOCGs
What would be expected from a "riserva" Barolo?
An intense, dry, velvety red wine, usually quite tannic and high in alcohol. Made from 100% Nebbiolo and aged for at least five years.
What is the difference in regards to the aging time of Barolo and Barbaresco?
Barolo is required to be aged for a minimum of three years (at least two in cask) while Barbaresco only needs to be aged for two.
What is the highest volume appellation of Piedmont and what is it known for?
Asti DOCG; an intensely aromatic wine full of peach and apricot flavors made from 100% Moscato.
What two styles is the Asti DOCG known for?
Moscato d'Asti (also a DOCG) which is frizzante (fizzy) and Asti, the spumante (fully sparkling) version.
How are Moscato d'Asti and Asti made? Which is sweeter?
Partial fermentation method. Moscato d'Asti is sweeter (5% alcohol in comparison to Asti's 7-9%)
What is the Roero DOCG known for?
In Piedmont. Makes a less concentrated, earlier drinking Nebbiolo as well as a highly regarded white wine from Arneis.
Which two DOCGs produce Nebbiolo-based blends in the northern part of Piedmont? What is Nebbiolo called here?
Gattinara and Ghemme DOCGs where Nebbiolo goes by the name of Spanna.
What is Gavi di Gavi?
A crisp, floral white wine made from the Cortese grape in the Gavi DOCG (southeast corner of Piedmont).
What can be expected from wines from Barbera d'Alba DOC, Dolchetto di Dogliani Superiore DOCG, and Grignolino d'Asti DOC?
These are grape named appellations in the Piedmont area whose wines are typically made from 100% their named variety.
What is the grape variety identified with Tuscany?
What are the traditional white grapes of the Tuscany region?
Trebbiano, Malvasia, and Vernaccia
What % of Tuscany's output is red? What other Italian region is more intently focused on red?
85% of Tuscanys output is red (including a small proportion of rosato). Calabria is the only other Italian region that is more intently focused on red wines.
What is vin santo?
A specialty of Tuscany (though it is made all over Italy). It is a dessert wine made by a unique process. White and red, dry and sweet (though most are sweet). Grapes are harvested and hung in attic rafters to dry (like Veneto's recioto). They are put on vin santo lees to initiate new fermentation and are kept sealed in barrels in the attic for two to six years.
Where/what grapes are required for a wine to be labeled Chianti DOCG?
Can be made anywhere in the Chianti zone and must contain a minimum of 75% Sangiovese (can be 100%). Other permitted varieties are Canaiolo Nero, the white grapes Trebbiano and Malvasia.
What are the 7 Chianti subzones?
Colli Aretini, Colli Fiorentini, Colli Senesi, Colline Pisane, Montalbano, Montespertoli, Rufina
What is required for a wine to use the name of one of the Chianti subzones?
A Chianti wine must come from that region and meet stricter standards in terms of vineyard density and yield, minimum alcohol level and aging.
When can a wine be defined Chianti Superiore?
It can come from anywhere in the Chianti zone but has standards equal to or higher than those for the subzones.
When can a Chianti qualify as a "riserva"?
It must age for more than two years before release and have a half-degree higher alcohol than the minimum for the equivalent non-riserva.
What grapes/alcohol % must a Chianti Classico DOCG wine have?
The formula has been recently modified so that Chianti must contain 80% Sangiovese and white grapes can be included in the blend. Must have 12% minimum alcohol and cannot be released for sale a year after harvest.
What are 4 Sangiovese synonyms?
Brunello (in Montalcino), Prugnolo Gentile (in Montepulciano), Morellino (in Scansano), Sangioveto (in Castellina)
What requirements must a wine meet to be labelled Brunello di Montalcino DOCG?
100% Brunello (Sangiovese) from the hill town of Montalcino (in Tuscany). It requires at least 4 years of aging (5 for riserva) with at least two years in wood and at least four months in bottle (6 for riserva)
What DOC do Montalcino growers have for ligher, shorter aged wines made from Brunello?
Rosso di Montalcino DOC
What is the difference between Vino Nobile di Montepulciano DOCG and Montepulciano d'Abruzzo?
Vino Nobile di Montepulciano is made from at least 70% Prugnolo Gentile (Sangiovese) from the Montepulciano (Chianti, Tuscany) region. Montepulciano d'Abruzzo is made from montepulciano grapes and from the Abruzzo region.
What DOCG's claim to fame is that they foreshadowed the Super-Tuscan issue by several centuries?
What % of what grape must Morellino di Scansano DOCG have? Where is it located?
85% or more Morellino (Sangiovese) and this DOCG is located in the southernmost part of Tuscany.
What is unique about the Pomino DOC?
It is a small appellation with vineyards at elevations approaching 2,500 feet in the foothills of the Apennines. It also produces nontraditional wines from sav blanc, chard, and pinot noir (in addition to typical Tuscany Sangiovese-based rosso (red) )
The Super-Tuscan movement in the 1970s introduced what three appellations?
Bolgheri DOC (for red and white blends of various proportions and vin santo), IGT Maremma Toscana, and the more general IGT Toscano.
What is Tuscany's best known white wine?
Vernaccia di San Gimignano DOCG produced from the Vernaccia grape on the fringes of the Chianti area.
What are the primary DOCs of Trentino-Alto Adige? What grape varieties and styles do they allow?
Alto Adige, Trentino, and the overarching Valdadige. They allow a wide selection; principal whites being chard, pinot grigio, pinot bianco, muller-thurgau, and traminer (gewürztraminer). The reds would be cab franc, cab sav, lag rein, merlot, marzemino, and teroldego.
What is the appellation for traditional-method sparkling wine in Trentino-Alto Adige?
What are the appellations considered the best for quality wines in Friuli-Venezia Giulia?
Colli Orientali del Friuli DOC (and its associated DOCG for Picolit) and Collio Goriziano DOC.
Are Colli Orientali del Friuli DOC and COllio Goriziano DOC wines typically blends?
No, they are often bottled as single variety wines.
What is Lombardy particularly known for?
The sparkling wines of Franciacorta DOCG which are metodo classico wines produced only with Chardonnay, Pinot Bianco, and/or Pinot Nero. It can be white or rose.
Which DOC in Lombardy makes one of the very few successful wines made outside Piedmont from the Nebbiolo grape?
Valtellino Rosso DOC which uses a minimum of 80% Chiavennasca (local name for Nebbiolo) and the Valtellino Superiore DOCG which calls for 90% Chiavennasca.
What are the 6 Valtellina subzones?
Grumello, Inferno, Maroggia, Sassella, Stagafassli, Valgella
What DOCG is in the same area as Valtellina Rosso DOC and Valtellina Superiore DOCG but is known for a dry, high-alcohol wine made from late-harvested Nebbiolo?
Sforzato di Valtellina DOCG
Which DOCs in Italy are responsible for producing light, sparkling red and rose wines from various subvarieties of the Lambrusco grape; coming in dry and sweet versions?
All 3 Lambrusco DOCs and the Reggiano DOC located in the Emilia-Romangna region.
What white wine DOCs is the Marches region known for?
Verdicchio dei Castelli di Jesi DOC and Verdicchio di Matelica DOC which make crisp but neutral whites made with the Verdicchio grape, in a variety of styles.
What red wine DOC and DOCG is the Marches region known for?
Conero DOCG and Rosso Conero DOC which produce red wines from the same small area, blending the Montepulciano grape with Sangiovese.
Which DOC makes a lighter version of Conero and Rosso Conero wines (from a much larger area)?
Rosso Piceno DOC
Define cerasuolo, in what DOC is it of importance?
The name for rose in Abruzzo. Montepulciano d'Abruzzo DOC requires at least 85% montepulciano for both red and cherry-colored cerasuolo.
Umbria is perhaps best known for the white wine made in what DOC?
Orvieto DOC which makes a white wine made predominantly from Grechetto and Trebbiano grapes. It is available in dry (secco) and semidry (abbocatto or amiable) styles.
Umbria is the home to which two red producing DOCG wines?
Montefalco Sagrantino made from 100% Sangrantino grape; and Torgiano Rosso Riserva, containly up to 70% Sangiovese with other nonaromatic red grapes to fill out the blend.
Which region produces a far higher proportion of white wines than any other Italian region?
Latium (in central Italy and centered around the city of Rome)
What are the most recognized examples of Latium white wines?
Frascati DOC and Est! Est!! Est!!! di Montefiascone DOC, both whites blending Trebbiano and Malvasia.
What is the most well known wine of Campania? Why is it so famous?
Taurasi DOCG (a red wine made from Aglianico, a bold red grape found in many places around the southern peninsula). It is so famous because Campania, the region where Naples is located, is the most populated region and the one most familiar to tourists.
The volcanic soil of Campania produces "white wines of great character" in which two DOCGs?
Fiano d'Avellino DOCG and Greco di Tufo DOCG
Which DOC is famous for its traditional Lacryma Cristi del Vesuvio - red, white, and rosato?
Vesuvio DOC in Campania
What is the most prominent appellation of Calabria (the boots toe)?
Ciro DOC; its rosso uses the Gaglioppo grape.
The heel of the boot, Apulia (puglia), is represented by which DOC?
Salice Salentino DOC, whose red version is based on Negroamaro, a robust, dark, colored grape grown only in Apulia.
Sicily is the home to which famous wine?
Marsala DOC, a fortified wine produced in both dry and sweet styles from the Catarratto, Grillo, and Inzolio grape varieties. This is the most famous wine of southern Italy.
Sardinia producers a higher proportion of ________ than other regions in the south.
What DOC is for wine made from at least 90% Cannonau anywhere in Sardinia? What is the better known synonym of Cannonau?
Cannonau di Sardegna DOC; Cannonau is the Sardinian name for Grenache or Garnacha
What is a characteristic grape of Sardinia that is grown all over the island but best known from a DOCG on the northern tip of the island? What is the name of this DOCG?
Vermentino; the Vermentino di Gallura DOCG
What is Alto Aldige known as in German?
What is the name of the coastal area in Tuscany which is the home of the Super Tuscan movement?
An ancient winemaking technique that has been revived in Chianti. Grapes that have been allowed to become overripe are crushed and added to the new wine as it is finishing fermentation. This extends fermentation to extract a new set of phenolics. Results in a richer, softer wine with higher alcohol.
What appellation is known for their earlier-drinking Nebbiolo wines but also make a highly regarded white wine? What grape do they use?
Roero DOCG in Piedmont. They also make a highly regarded white wine from Arneis.
Branchetto d'Acqui DOCG: grapes, wine color/style, region?
Branchetto, sweet/sparkling red wine made with partial fermentation method (same as Moscato d'Asti), Piedmont region.
Marsala DOC: grapes, wine color/style, region?
Catarratto, Grillo, and Inzolia grapes, dry and sweet fortified wine, from the island of Sicily.
What mountain range separates northern Italy from Austria?
What mountain range separates Piedmont from France?
What country does Friuli-Venezia Giulia share a boarder with?
What grape is grown only in Apulia?
Negromaro which is a robust, dark colored grape.
What are the five categories of Marsala based on the amount of aging?
Marsala Fine (one year) Marsala Superior (two years) Marsala Superiore Riserva (4 years) Marsala Vergine or Marsala Soleras (5 years and aged in a solera system like Sherry) Vergine Stavecchio Riserva (dry and requires ten years aging in cask)
What are the three types of Marsala?
oro (golden) ambra (amber) rubino (ruby/red)
In which Italian region is vermouth (an aromatized and fortified wine) an important economic product?
Which Italian region is the largest source of basic wine in northern Italy and the country's second largest source of IGT wine?
What is the most popular grape variety in Emilia-Romagna?