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Flashcards in Varietals Wine Defined Deck (62)
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At what temperature should different types of wine be served?

Sparkling and sweet wines - 45-50
dry white and rose table wines - 50-60
light bodied red table wines - 55-65
full bodied red table wines - 62-68


What are the major categories found in wine?

80-90% water, 10-15% alcohol, .5-.75% acid, sugar


What is the main alcohol found in wine?

ethyl alcohol or ethanol - it is the most important result of the fermentation of sugar by yeast


What is the most prevalent of the acids in grapes and wine, and the strongest?

Tartaric acid


What is the acid of vinegar? What is the name of the harmful bacteria that can be unpleasant and make wine undrinkable by causing a high concentration of this acid?

Acetic acid, the bacteria is called acetobacter


What are the 6 types of principal acids found in wine?

tartaric, malic, lactic, acetic, succinic, citric


What is the chemical formula for succinic acid, lactic acid, glycerol, ethanol, and carbon dioxide?

succinic (C4H6O2) lactic (C3H6O3) glycerol (C3H5(OH)3) ethanol (C2H5OH) carbon dioxide (CO2)


When a PH is lower, what happens to the acid?

Acids are higher


What 5 categories do phenolics include?

anthocyanins (give wine blue, purple, red color: red in more acidic, blue in less acidic)
flavones and flavonols (yellow pigments found in white)
tannins (astringest or bitter compounds)
vanillin (aromatic phenolic compound in oak that imparts a vanilla odor to barrel-aged wine)
resveratrol (believed to have several health benefits in humans)


When are aldehydes formed?

They are oxidized alcohols that are formed when wine is exposed to air.


When are esters formed?

They are molecules that result from the joining of acid and alcohol. They are the largest group of odiferous compounds in wine.


How much of wine is typically affected by TCA (2,4,6-trichloroanisole)?



What off-odors can the following sulfur compounds cause: sulfur dioxide (SO2), hydrogen sulfide(H2S)?

(SO2) = smell of burt matches
(H2S0 = odor or rotton eggs
Mercaptan = smell of garlic and onions


What off-odors can the following bacteria cause: acetic acid, butryic acid, lactic acid, ethyl acetate, mousy, geranium?

cetic = odor of vinegar
butyric = rancid butter or spoiled cheese
lactic = sauerkraut or a goat
ethyl = odor of fingernail polish remover
mousy = odor of mouse of wet wool
geranium = crushed geranium leaves usually caused by incomplete malolactic fermentation


What type of smell can be caused by reduction?

rotten eggs, garlic, struck matches, cabbage, or burnt rubber


Define acetobacter

The bacteria that converts alcohol into acetic acid


What is the difference between a cross and a hybrid?

A cross is the offspring of two different subspecies within the same species. For example, Cab Sav (cross between Sav Blanc and Cab Franc). A hybrid is a cross of two different species (Ex. Seyval Blanc)


Chardonnay: What region is it indigenous to, what soil does it perform best on, does it improve with age?

Indigenous to Burgundy where many consider it to produce its highest expression on the limestone soils. It improves with age.


Chardonnay: vineyard area worldwide, top producing countries, acidity, alcohol?

410,000 acres, France, US, and Australia, acidity is low to high and alcohol is medium to high.


Sav Blanc: What region is it indigenous to, what soil does it perform best on, well known examples?

Native to France, acts as a chameleon and produces different styles depending on different soils, well known examples include Sancerre and Poully Fume, white Bordeaux, CA Fume Blanc, New Zealand


Sav Blanc: vineyard area worldwide, top producing countries, acidity, alcohol?

210,000 acres, France, New Zealand, Chile, South Africa, acidity high and alcohol medium.


Riesling: What region is it indigenous to, what is considered a "true riesling"?

Indigenous to Germany and White Riesling and Johannisberg Riesling are two "true rieslings"


Riesling: vineyard area worldwide, top producing countries, acidity, alcohol?

100,000 acres, Germany Australia, France, US, acidity high to very high, alcohol very low to high.


Where did Chenin Blanc originate? What is Chenin Blanc called in South Africa and how does the vineyard acreage in SA compare to France?

Originated in the Loire Valley in France, in South Africa it is called Steen and is by far the most widely planted grape variety. There is twice as much Chenin Blanc in SA as there is in France.


Chenin Blanc: vineyard acreage, acidity, alcohol?

90,000 acres, acidity high, alcohol medium to high


Is Pinot Grigio a hybrid, cross, or mutation?

It is a mutation of Pinot Noir which developed in the Burgundy area of France. It literally means "gray Pinot"


What is Pinot Grigio called in Germany?

Grauburgunder and Rulander


Pinot Grigio: vineyard acreage, top producing countries, acidity, alcohol?

60,000 acres, Italy, US, Germany, France, Australia, acidity is low to high, alcohol is medium.


What type of climate does Muscat perform best in? What are some characteristic aromas?

Warm to hot climates;aromas include musk, honey, orange blossom, apricot, table grapes


Muscat: vineyard acreage, top producing countries, acidity, alcohol?

85,000 acres, Italy, France, Chile, Australia, medium acidity, medium to high alcohol


What is Pinot Blanc called in Italy, Germany, and Austria?

The majority of Pinot Blanc can be found in Italy where it is called Pinot Bianco, and in Germany and Austria where it is Weissburgunder.


Which varietal was first recorded in the Italian Alps but is probably most prominent today in Alsace?



Which country is Trebbiano associated with? What as it known as in France?

Trebbiano is a neutral white grape associated principally with Italy. However, there is a considerable quantity in France where it is known as Ugni Blanc (mostly for the production of brandy)


Which country is Albarino associated with?



Which country is Chasselas associated with?



Which country is Furmint associated with?



Which country is Gruner Veltliner associated with?



What is the acidity, tannin, and alcohol level of Grenache?

Acidity is low to medium, tannin is low, and alcohol is high.


What is Grenache known as in Spain and on the Italian island of Sardinia?

In Spain, Grenache is known as Garnacha and in Sardinia it is called Cannonau.


Where is Grenache well known?

southern Rhone valley, Rioja (Spain), Navarra (Spain), Australia


Syrah: where is it well known, top producing countries, acidity, tannin, alcohol?

It is well known in northern Rhone and Australia. Top producing countries are France and Australia. Acidity is low to medium, tannin and alcohol are both high.


Pinot Noir: well known examples, top producing countries, acidity, tannin, alcohol?

Pinot Noir is well known in Burgundy, Champagne, New Zealand, and Oregon. Top producing countries are France, US, and Germany. Acidity is medium to high. Tannin is low to medium and alcohol is medium.


Cab Franc: well known examples, top producing countries, acidity, tannin, alcohol?

Cab Fran is a very important blending grape. It is well known in Bordeaux and the Loire Valley. Top producing countries are France and Italy. Acidity is medium to high. Tannin is light to medium. Alcohol is medium.


Which French appellation is Malbec famous in? What is Malbec called here?

Malbec is the main ingredient in the French appellation Cahors (where it is called Cot).


Monastrell (Mourvedre) is primarily associated with which country?



Blaur Portugieser is primarily associated with which country?



Define micro-meso and macro-climate

Macroclimate refers to the overall region and is roughly synonymous with climate. Microclimate refers to the typical weather of a small area. Mesoclimate refers to the conditions of the entire vineyard.


What is an example of a bacterial disease?

Pierce's disease - a bacteriological contamination of the host vine resulting in premature leaf fall. the disease is spread by several types of sharpshooters or leafhoppers, most notably the glassy-winged sharpshooter.


What are two examples of fungal diseases? What are alternate names for them?

Powdery mildew (also known as odium) and Downy mildew (also known as perenospera)


What type of disease is botrytis? What are alternate names in French and German?

Fungal; it is known to the French as pourriture noble and to the Germans as Edelfaule


Who is Dr. Smart?

He is an Australian enologist who published the philosophy disputing the thought that a vine needed to "struggle". Smart thought that a vine simply needed to be "balanced".


How do the French measure ripeness?

Baume, a unit of measurement in France which reflects the potential alcohol level in milimeters of wine. Grape must with 12 baume will have 12% alcohol.


In the US, who designates whether or not a vineyard can be considered "organic"?

The US Department of Agriculture's National Organic Program (NOP)


Certification for Biodynamic Viticulture is achieved through which private organization?

Demeter International


Which organization is spearheading the certification of sustainable practice?

The Lodi Rules program in California


What does debourgage refer to?

Allowing the juice to settle after pressing and waiting for a day or two before allowing fermentation to begin. This lets a must adjustment fully integrate into the juice as well as to have time to process more grapes that will go into the same batch (or time to prepare the fermentation vessel).


What is the basic chemical formula of fermentation?

C6H12O6 (glucsose and fructose) + yeast --> 2(C2H5OH) (ethanol) + 2(CO2) (carbon dioxide) + heat


What is carbonic maceration and where is this technique primarily known?

Whole-berry fermentation. This involved enzymatic fermentation that requires neither yeast nor bacteria. It will happen in whole unbroken grapes where there is no oxygen present. It is primarily known as the method for making Beaujolai Nouveau, a well knwon light red wine from the Beaujolais region of France. This technique might also be used for red wine fermentations in other regions to soften their otherwise harsh tannins and other phenolics.


Define photosynthesis

the process in which clorophyll in the leaves uses sunlight to convert carbon dioxide and water into glucose (sugar) and oxygen.


Define transpiration

the process by which water evaporates through the stomata - openings on the underside of the leaves.


Define respiration

the process by which sugars and related carbohydrates such as malic acid are broken down and used by the vine as an energy source.


Define translocation

the process by which materials are moved from one area of the plant to another.