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Flashcards in Varietals Wine Defined Deck (62)
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At what temperature should different types of wine be served?

Sparkling and sweet wines - 45-50
dry white and rose table wines - 50-60
light bodied red table wines - 55-65
full bodied red table wines - 62-68


What are the major categories found in wine?

80-90% water, 10-15% alcohol, .5-.75% acid, sugar


What is the main alcohol found in wine?

ethyl alcohol or ethanol - it is the most important result of the fermentation of sugar by yeast


What is the most prevalent of the acids in grapes and wine, and the strongest?

Tartaric acid


What is the acid of vinegar? What is the name of the harmful bacteria that can be unpleasant and make wine undrinkable by causing a high concentration of this acid?

Acetic acid, the bacteria is called acetobacter


What are the 6 types of principal acids found in wine?

tartaric, malic, lactic, acetic, succinic, citric


What is the chemical formula for succinic acid, lactic acid, glycerol, ethanol, and carbon dioxide?

succinic (C4H6O2) lactic (C3H6O3) glycerol (C3H5(OH)3) ethanol (C2H5OH) carbon dioxide (CO2)


When a PH is lower, what happens to the acid?

Acids are higher


What 5 categories do phenolics include?

anthocyanins (give wine blue, purple, red color: red in more acidic, blue in less acidic)
flavones and flavonols (yellow pigments found in white)
tannins (astringest or bitter compounds)
vanillin (aromatic phenolic compound in oak that imparts a vanilla odor to barrel-aged wine)
resveratrol (believed to have several health benefits in humans)


When are aldehydes formed?

They are oxidized alcohols that are formed when wine is exposed to air.


When are esters formed?

They are molecules that result from the joining of acid and alcohol. They are the largest group of odiferous compounds in wine.


How much of wine is typically affected by TCA (2,4,6-trichloroanisole)?



What off-odors can the following sulfur compounds cause: sulfur dioxide (SO2), hydrogen sulfide(H2S)?

(SO2) = smell of burt matches
(H2S0 = odor or rotton eggs
Mercaptan = smell of garlic and onions


What off-odors can the following bacteria cause: acetic acid, butryic acid, lactic acid, ethyl acetate, mousy, geranium?

cetic = odor of vinegar
butyric = rancid butter or spoiled cheese
lactic = sauerkraut or a goat
ethyl = odor of fingernail polish remover
mousy = odor of mouse of wet wool
geranium = crushed geranium leaves usually caused by incomplete malolactic fermentation


What type of smell can be caused by reduction?

rotten eggs, garlic, struck matches, cabbage, or burnt rubber


Define acetobacter

The bacteria that converts alcohol into acetic acid


What is the difference between a cross and a hybrid?

A cross is the offspring of two different subspecies within the same species. For example, Cab Sav (cross between Sav Blanc and Cab Franc). A hybrid is a cross of two different species (Ex. Seyval Blanc)


Chardonnay: What region is it indigenous to, what soil does it perform best on, does it improve with age?

Indigenous to Burgundy where many consider it to produce its highest expression on the limestone soils. It improves with age.


Chardonnay: vineyard area worldwide, top producing countries, acidity, alcohol?

410,000 acres, France, US, and Australia, acidity is low to high and alcohol is medium to high.


Sav Blanc: What region is it indigenous to, what soil does it perform best on, well known examples?

Native to France, acts as a chameleon and produces different styles depending on different soils, well known examples include Sancerre and Poully Fume, white Bordeaux, CA Fume Blanc, New Zealand


Sav Blanc: vineyard area worldwide, top producing countries, acidity, alcohol?

210,000 acres, France, New Zealand, Chile, South Africa, acidity high and alcohol medium.


Riesling: What region is it indigenous to, what is considered a "true riesling"?

Indigenous to Germany and White Riesling and Johannisberg Riesling are two "true rieslings"


Riesling: vineyard area worldwide, top producing countries, acidity, alcohol?

100,000 acres, Germany Australia, France, US, acidity high to very high, alcohol very low to high.


Where did Chenin Blanc originate? What is Chenin Blanc called in South Africa and how does the vineyard acreage in SA compare to France?

Originated in the Loire Valley in France, in South Africa it is called Steen and is by far the most widely planted grape variety. There is twice as much Chenin Blanc in SA as there is in France.


Chenin Blanc: vineyard acreage, acidity, alcohol?

90,000 acres, acidity high, alcohol medium to high


Is Pinot Grigio a hybrid, cross, or mutation?

It is a mutation of Pinot Noir which developed in the Burgundy area of France. It literally means "gray Pinot"


What is Pinot Grigio called in Germany?

Grauburgunder and Rulander


Pinot Grigio: vineyard acreage, top producing countries, acidity, alcohol?

60,000 acres, Italy, US, Germany, France, Australia, acidity is low to high, alcohol is medium.


What type of climate does Muscat perform best in? What are some characteristic aromas?

Warm to hot climates;aromas include musk, honey, orange blossom, apricot, table grapes


Muscat: vineyard acreage, top producing countries, acidity, alcohol?

85,000 acres, Italy, France, Chile, Australia, medium acidity, medium to high alcohol