Fungal Respiratory Infections Flashcards Preview

Pulmonary Micro > Fungal Respiratory Infections > Flashcards

Flashcards in Fungal Respiratory Infections Deck (40):
1

What are the 3 systemic mycoses?

Histoplasma Capsulatum, Bastomycetes Dermatidis, Coccidiodes Immitis

2

What are the 3 opportunistic mycoses?

Aspergillus spp., Zygomycetes (Mycormycosis), Pneumocystis Jerovici

3

Are the systemic mycoses dimorphic?

Yes

4

What is the reason that dimorphic fungi are resistant to phagocytic killing?

The tissue form, not the environmental form (mold) is invasive and resistant

5

What is the distinct form of conida that Histoplasma form?

Tuberculate (bumpy)

6

Where is Histoplasma found and in what form?

It is found as mold in soul with bird/bat excrement; OH + MS River Valley and Central America

7

What does the Histoplasma yeast target in the human body?

The RES System (Lymph nodes, bone marrow, spleen)

8

What disease does H. Capsulatum cause?

Histoplasmosis

9

What is the damage from fungal infections caused by?

Our immune system response to phago-resistant fungi

10

What are the symptoms of Histoplasmosis?

None > mild flu > pneumonia

11

What patients have an increased risk of contracting Histoplasmosis?

ICP's

12

What is the difference between B. Dermatitis and H. Capsulatum in terms of where they can survive?

B. Dermatitis cannot survive in macrophages when in the yeast form

13

Where is B. Dermatitis found?

In the soil of the Mid-South, SE, and Mid-West

14

Who is most commonly infected with B. Dermatitis?

Middle aged to older men

15

What disease does B. Dermatitis cause?

Blastomycosis

16

What symptoms does Blastomycosis cause?

Acute Pneumo (Brown, purulent/bloody sputum) and wart-like skin lesions > meningitis

17

What does Blastomycosis look like? Hint: Lung masses develop

TB/Cancer

18

What form does Coccidiodes Immitis take in its tissue form?

Spherules

19

Because it is highly infective, C. immitis is considered a what?

Bioweapon

20

Where is C. Immitis found?

The semi-arid climates of SW US

21

What disease does C. Immitis cause?

Coccidiodomycosis (Valley fever - San Joaquin, CA)

22

What symptoms does C. Immitis cause?

None > flu > Skin lesions > mengitis

23

Who is most likely to get Coccidiodomycosis?

Men, dark skinned, ICP's (increased for dissemination)

24

What are the treatments for Systemic Mycoses?

If healthy: Observe for 1 mo., if infection after 1 mo = 6-12 wks azole
If chronic/systemic = Amp B for wks > Azole for 1-2 yrs
If ICP = Abp b for wks > Azole for rest of life

25

What form does Aspergillus spp. form and where is it found?

45 degree branching septate hyphae; It is a nosocomial infection so it is found in hospital air ducts (ICP's)

26

What disease does A. spp. cause?

Aspergillosis

27

What symptoms will a patient with Aspergillosis exhibit?

Previous respiratory disorders; an aspergilloma @ pre-existing lesion

28

What form does Zygomycetes (Mucormycoses) take?

90 degree broad nonseptate hyphae

29

Under what conditions are Zygomycetes found?

After an increase in soil disturbance; think tornadoes

30

What disease does Zygomycetes cause?

Mucormycosis/zygomycosis

31

What are the symptoms of Mucormycosis?

Acidosis (diabetes pts) or corticosteroid pts; presents as pneumonia or rhinocerebral form (rapid death)

32

What form does P. Jerovici take?

Thin walled cysts that contain sporozoites; NO hyphae

33

What is special about the way P. Jerovici is cultured?

It cannot be cultured - both fungal and protozoal characteristics

34

What is the P. Jerovici membrane made of?

Cholesterol

35

What disease does P. Jerovici cause?

Pneumocystis pneumonia (PcP)

36

What does pneumocystis pneumonia look like? What causes death?

Like diffuse interstitial pneumonia; asphyxiation

37

What is the treatment for the Opportunistic fungi?

Asp./Zyg: = Amp B + Excision
Pneumo = O2 + Trimethorpim-sulfa-methoxazole

38

What does KOH stain for fungals?

Ergesterol

39

AIDS is the most common predisposing condition to PcP, what therapy has reduced the incidence of PcP in the AIDS population?

HAART therapy

40

Cultures must be grown from what for Aspergillosis?

Brochoalveolar Lavage (BAL)