Flashcards in Gas Exchange Deck (24)
How do children normally breath?
They use their abdominal muscles for breathing during infancy and early childhood
What things should a nurse be aware of with a pregnant woman regarding the respiratory system?
In a pregnant woman:
1. muscles and cartilage of the ribs relax
2. inspiratory capacity increases
3. Expiratory reserve volume is the same
4. Can obtain mild respiratory alkalosis
What things should a nurse be aware of with an older adult regarding the respiratory system?
Older adults have:
1. a decrease in respiratory efficiency
2. changes in respiratory depth
3. decrease in cough ability
4. increase in respiratory rate
5. anxiety and physical exertion can cause significant demands
6. increased effect of infection
What psychosocial issues can cause respiratory problems?
When using inspection for the respiratory system what should the nurse look for?
1. normal skin color
2. symmetry of the anterior and posterior thorax
3. configuration of the anterior and posterior thorax
4. respiratory rate
What do fine crackles in the lungs sound like?
high pitched, short, crackling
When do crackles occur in the lungs?
End inspiration, and do not clear with cough
Why do crackles in the lungs occur
collapsed or fluid-filled alveoli
What do coarse crackles in the lungs sound like?
loud, moist, low pitched, bubbling
When do wheezes occur?
Expiration/inspiration when severe
What do wheezes sound like?
high pitched and continuous
Why do wheezes occur?
blocked airflow as in asthma, infection, foreign body obstruction
What does stridor sound like?
Loud, high pitched crowing heard without stethoscope
What causes stridor?
Obstructed upper airway
When does stridor occur?
What causes friction rub?
What does friction rub sound like?
low-pitched grating, rubbing
When does friction rub occur?
What does a Barrel Chest indicate?
What is indicated if someone has a barrel chest but skinny arms and legs?
What is Atelectasis?
obstruction of airflow
What is Pleural effusion?
fluid in the pleural space
What is a pneumothroax?
collapse of the lung