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Flashcards in Pain Deck (49)
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Define Pain

An unpleasant sensory and emotional experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage or described in terms of such damage


What is a complication if pain is not addressed?

Undertreatment of pain can be detrimental to physical, mental, and physiological health
Acute pain may lead to chronic pain


What is acute pain?

Pain that lasts only through the expected recovery period from illness, injury, or surgery, whether it has a sudden or slow onset and regardless o the intensity


What is chronic pain?

Pain that is prolonged, usually recurring or persisting over 6 months or longer, and interferes wit functioning.


What are signs of physiologic pain?

1. increased HR and BP
2. sweating
3. Pallor
4. Anxiety
5. Dilated pupils


What is phantom pain?

Pain that you feel in the spot where your limb was amputated.


Who are at risk for pain?

All individuals.
However, specifically:
1. Neonates
2. Critically ill
3. Children
4. Elderly


What is done for pain control in labor?

1. assessment of pain
2. keeping safety as a priority
3. Reassessment and evaluation
4. Look or post med administration side effects


How would a nurse assess for pain?

Know the:
1. location, onset, intensity, quality, and duration
2. Alleviating and relieving factors
3. Effect of pain on function and quality of life
4. Comfort-function goal
5. Associated manifestations
6. Culture
7. Past pain experience
8. Past medical history
9. Pain scales


What are some consequences of pain?

1. pain triggers a stress response
2. Increased endocrine activity
3. The immune system is altered
4. Cardiovascular system affected
5. Changes in the respiratory system occur


What should the nurse do if there are physiological responses associated with pain?

1. intervene and reduce the responses
2. plan comfort interventions for initial pain and changes in pain


What are some barriers to pain control?

1. failure of patient to report pain, patient not discussing pain to worry about the progression of the disease, bearing pain is "tough"
2. Belief that pain is inevitable, wanting to be good, cultural expectations not to report pain
3. Fear of becoming an addict, regulations by the government on medications, prescribing minimal amounts of medication to prevent misuse
4. side effects, financial barriers, delay in pain medication, POOR pain assessment, and lack of availability of controlled substances


What is deep somatic pain?

It occurs form ligaments, tendons, bones, blood vessels and nerves.
Ex: An ankle sprain


What is Visceral Pain?

Occurs when pain receptors in the abdominal cavity, cranium, and thorax are activated


What is referred pain?

Pain felt in a part of the body that is considerable removed or distant from the area actually causing the pain


What is intractable pain?

Pain that is highly resistant to relief.
Ex: Pain from an advanced malignancy


What is neuropathic pain?

Pain that is the result of current or past damage to the peripheral or central nervous system and may not have a stimulus, such as tissue or nerve damage, for the pain.


What does neuropathic pain feel like?

long lasting, unpleasant, burning, dull aching, with episodes of sharp shooting pain.


What are some symptoms of acute pain?

sympathetic nervous system responses:
1. Increased Pulse
2. Increased RR
3. Elevated BP
4. Diaphoresis (sweating)
5. dilated pupils


What resolves acute pain?



How is the patient's mood of they have acute pain?

they appear restless and anxious
Patient may exhibit behavior like crying, rubbing the area, and holding the area


Does the sympathetic or parasympathetic nervous system respond to chronic pain?



What are the parasympathetic responses to chronic pain?

1. Normal VS
2. Dry, warm skin
3. Pupils normal or dilated


What is patient's mood like when they have chronic pain?

1. patient appears depressed and withdrawn
2. patient often does not mention pain unless asked
3. Pain behavior often absent


Why are children a lifespan consideration for pain?

They may be less able than an adult to articulate their experience or needs related to their pain.


What are some considerations of pain in children?

1. Small children commonly will complain of a "tummy ache" or "my throat hurts"
2. Preadolescent children will complain of stomach pain when they are gassy, if they are nauseated, or if they actually feel abdominal pain
3. Children with sore throats often present a history of normal fluid intake but decreased solid food intake
4. Anxious or frightened preschool and school-age children many complain of headache are stomachache


What is the acronym for assessing pain?

o= onsett
l= location
d= duration
c= characteristics
a= aggravating factors
r= relieving factors
t= treatment
I= impact on ADLs
C= Coping strategies
E= Emotional response


What are the types of pain scales mentioned in Jackie's pain lecture?

1. Wong-baker FACES pain rating scale
2. The FLACC scale
3. Comparative Pain scale
4. Pain Assessment in Advanced Dementia (PAINAD)


What is the FLACC scale?

A scale used for nonverbal patient. It includes 5 categories (Face, Legs, Activity, Cry, and Consolability). In each of these categories they are ranked 0-2. (0 being no signs of visible pain, and 2 being visible signs of pain)


What medications are appropriate for pain relief during the first stage of labor?

First stage:
1. opioid agonist analgesics,
2. opioid agonist-antagonist analgesics
3. epidural analgesia
4. epidural anesthesia
5. combined spinal-epidural (CSE analgesia)
6. Nitrous oxide