General - Ch. 14 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in General - Ch. 14 Deck (28):
1

MCV

Average RBC volume

2

MCH

Average Hgb content

3

MCHC

Weight % due to Hgb

4

RDW

Average weight/size of RBCs

5

- Mechanical injury
- Complement fixation
- Intracellular parasites
- Toxic injury

Intravascular hemolysis causes

6

- Mechanical valves
- Thrombotic narrowing of microvasculature
- Repetitive trauma

Causes of mechanical injury to RBCs (intravascular hemolysis)

7

Major intracellular parasite in RBCs, causing intravascular hemolysis

Malaria

8

Clostridial sepsis

Major cause of toxic injury to RBCs, causing intravascular hemolysis

9

Red-brown urine in intravascular hemolytic anemia...cause?

Methemoglobin (after haptoglobin is depleted)

10

Jaundice in hemolytic anemia

Hgb-haptoglobin complexes metabolized to unconjugated bilirubin

11

What is commonly seen in the kidney in intravascular hemolytic anemia?

Hemosiderosis (iron deposition in tubules)

12

Extravascular hemolytic anemia is due to what?

Causing what?

Decreased deformability of the RBC membrane

Splenic sequestration, macrophage phagocytosis

13

Profoundly chronic anemia can cause what changes in other organs?

Fatty change in liver, heart, kidney, CNS

14

Hypo-micro anemia usually due to deficit in ____, generally

Hgb synthesis

15

Macrocytic anemia usually due to deficit in ____, generally

Maturation of erythroid precursors

16

Reticulocytosis implies that ____ and ____

The BM is functional, and RBCs are being lost

17

Conjugated hyperbilirubinemia...rule out what?

Hemolytic anemia (always unconjugated)

18

- Viral hepatitis
- Pneumonia
- Typhoid fever

Infectious causes of oxidant stress in G6PD deficiency

19

- Antimalarials (primaquine, chloroquine)
- Sulfonamides
- Nitrofurantoins

Drug causes of oxidant stress in G6PD deficiency

20

Fava beans

Food cause of oxidant stress in G6PD deficiency

21

Cross-linked sulfhydryl groups on damaged globin chains that become denatured and form membrane-bound precipitates

Cause what?

Pathology appearance?

Disease?

Heinz bodies

Membrane damage --> intravascular or extravascular hemolysis

Dark inclusions in RBCs on crystal violet, w/ BITE CELLS and SPHEROCYTES

G6PD deficiency

22

- Aplastic crises
- Hemolytic crises

Organisms for each?

Hereditary spherocytosis

Aplastic = parvovirus
Hemolytic = EBV (mononucleosis)

23

Sickle cell disease is what?

Mutation in beta-globin gene, causing polymerization of hemoglobin w/in RBCs in certain physiologic conditions, leading to hemolysis and anemia

24

2 reasons for malaria prevention in sickle cell

- The parasite consumes oxygen and decreases pH, causing sickling
- Impaired formation of PfEMP-1

25

Protection from malaria

- G6PD deficiency
- Sickle cell disease
- Thalassemias

26

- Chronic hemolysis
- Microvascular occlusions
- Tissue damage

Sickle cell disease - major pathologic manifestations

27

HbSC sickle cell prognosis/symptoms compared to normal sickle cell

Better/milder than normal sickle cell

28

Left off on p. 636

a