Flashcards in Karius - Blood Deck (34):
What makes G-CSF?
- Immune cells
What stimulates EPO?
HIF - not destroyed in hypoxia
What makes TPO?
How is TPO creation regulated?
Binds to platelet 'mpl' receptor, then gets destroyed
How do RBCs get energy?
What is a reticulocyte?
Early RBC that has not lost all of its organelles yet
What makes IF?
Vitamin B12 deficiency = ?
3 causes of folate deficiency
- Alcohol (can't get it from liver)
- Reduced absorption
Describe heme production (3)
- Succinyl-CoA + Glycine = Pyrrole
- Pyrrole x 4 = Protoporphyrin IX
- Protoporphyrin IX + iron = Heme
Fetal Hb structure
2 alpha, 2 gamma subunits
Beta chains have Glu --> Val
Describe absorption of iron
- Liver releases apotransferrin
- Iron + apotransferrin = transferrin
- Transferrin is absorbed
Describe iron storage in liver
Iron + apoferritin = ferritin
Excess iron is stored as what?
Iron insufficiency = ____ anemia
RBC uses for ATP (4)
- Flexibility of membrane
- Keep in +2 (ferrous) state
- Prevent oxidation
Why is bilirubin conjugated?
To make it water soluble for the bile
What happens to bilirubin after excreted into the intestine?
Deconjugated, turned intno urobilinigen --> urobilin and stercobilin
B12/folate deficiency = __ anemia
3 causes of polycythemia
- Mpl or other receptor anomaly
- Hypoxic environment
- False hypoxia via ht/lung failure
What keeps platelets from binding to in-tact endothelium?
Glycoproteins - on the platelet surface
Causes of vascular spasm (3)
- Myogenic response (damage)
- 5-HT, Tx2 from platelets/tissue
- Nociceptive reflex
ADP and TxA2 in platelet plug
Trigger platelets to become sticky
Extrinsic clotting pathway
TF + 7 --> Xa + Va --> PT
Intrinsic clotting pathway
Damage + PF3 --> XIIa + kininogen --> XIa --> IXa + VIIIa --> Xa + Va --> PT
Which clotting cascade pathway is faster?
How is a clot stabilized?
Fibrin strands polymerize via fibrin-stabilizing factor (platelets)
How to dissolve a blood clot?
- Protein C + thrombomodulin = destroy tPA inhibitor
- tPA activates plasmin
- Plasmin cleaves the fibrin clot
3 things that prevent normal clotting
- Smooth endothelium
- Glycocalyx on endothelium
Blood anticoagulants (3)
- Fibrin (absorbs thrombin)
- Heparin (via mast cells)
Vitamin K needed for what factors?
PT, VII, IX, X, Protein C
Factor VIII deficiency