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Flashcards in Karius - Blood Deck (34):
1

What makes G-CSF?

- Endothelium
- Macrophages
- Immune cells

2

What stimulates EPO?

HIF - not destroyed in hypoxia

3

What makes TPO?

- Liver
- Kidney

4

How is TPO creation regulated?

Binds to platelet 'mpl' receptor, then gets destroyed

5

How do RBCs get energy?

Anaerobic metabolism

6

What is a reticulocyte?

Early RBC that has not lost all of its organelles yet

7

What makes IF?

Parietal cells

8

Vitamin B12 deficiency = ?

Pernicious anemia

9

3 causes of folate deficiency

- Heat
- Alcohol (can't get it from liver)
- Reduced absorption

10

Describe heme production (3)

- Succinyl-CoA + Glycine = Pyrrole
- Pyrrole x 4 = Protoporphyrin IX
- Protoporphyrin IX + iron = Heme

11

Fetal Hb structure

2 alpha, 2 gamma subunits

12

HbS structure

Beta chains have Glu --> Val

13

Describe absorption of iron

- Liver releases apotransferrin
- Iron + apotransferrin = transferrin
- Transferrin is absorbed

14

Describe iron storage in liver

Iron + apoferritin = ferritin

15

Excess iron is stored as what?

Hemosiderin

16

Iron insufficiency = ____ anemia

Microcytic, hypochromic

17

RBC uses for ATP (4)

- Flexibility of membrane
- ATPases
- Keep in +2 (ferrous) state
- Prevent oxidation

18

Why is bilirubin conjugated?

To make it water soluble for the bile

19

What happens to bilirubin after excreted into the intestine?

Deconjugated, turned intno urobilinigen --> urobilin and stercobilin

20

B12/folate deficiency = __ anemia

Macrocytic/megaloblastic

21

3 causes of polycythemia

- Mpl or other receptor anomaly
- Hypoxic environment
- False hypoxia via ht/lung failure

22

What keeps platelets from binding to in-tact endothelium?

Glycoproteins - on the platelet surface

23

Causes of vascular spasm (3)

- Myogenic response (damage)
- 5-HT, Tx2 from platelets/tissue
- Nociceptive reflex

24

ADP and TxA2 in platelet plug

Trigger platelets to become sticky

25

Extrinsic clotting pathway

TF + 7 --> Xa + Va --> PT

26

Intrinsic clotting pathway

Damage + PF3 --> XIIa + kininogen --> XIa --> IXa + VIIIa --> Xa + Va --> PT

27

Which clotting cascade pathway is faster?

Intrinsic

28

How is a clot stabilized?

Fibrin strands polymerize via fibrin-stabilizing factor (platelets)

29

How to dissolve a blood clot?

- Protein C + thrombomodulin = destroy tPA inhibitor
- tPA activates plasmin
- Plasmin cleaves the fibrin clot

30

3 things that prevent normal clotting

- Smooth endothelium
- Glycocalyx on endothelium
- Thrombomodulin

31

Blood anticoagulants (3)

- Fibrin (absorbs thrombin)
- AT3
- Heparin (via mast cells)

32

Vitamin K needed for what factors?

PT, VII, IX, X, Protein C

33

Hemophilia A

Factor VIII deficiency

34

Factor V Leiden

Activated V is resistant to Protein C --> inappropriate clotting