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Flashcards in Genitourinary Deck (44):
1

s/s of pyelonephritis

fever, dysuria, frequency, N/V, unilateral flank pain

2

s/s of acute renal failure

abrupt onset of oliguria, edema, weight gain, lethargy, decreased appetite

3

Water is absorbed back into the body by the action of

ADH and aldosterone

4

oliguria

urine output less than 400 mL per day

5

kidneys secrete these hormones

erythropoietin (RBC), renin & bradykinin (BP), prostaglandin (renal perfusion), and calcitrol/vitamin D3 (bone)

6

causes of high BUN

acute renal failure, high-protein diet, CHF

7

This is not as sensitive as the creatinine or GFR

BUN

8

Large amounts of this in a urine sample indicate contamination

epithelial cells

9

This CFU/mL of a certain bacteria is indicative of UTI

greater than 10 to the 5th power

10

Urine dipsticks only pick up

albumin, not microalbumin

11

Indicative of urinary infection with E.coli on UA

nitrites

12

UTI is common in boys during

infancy

13

Uncomplicated UTI can be treated for

3 days

14

These patients with UTI are considered complicated

males, diabetics, pregnancy women, children, elderly, those with co-morbids

15

long term use of nitrofurantoin is associated with

lung problems, chronic hepatitis, neuropathy

16

If there is more than one kind of bacteria in urine culture, then

the sample is contaminated

17

The ____ kidney sits lower than the ____ kidney due to displacement by the _____

right; left; liver

18

risk factors for kidney stones

family hx, low fluid intake, gout, bariatric surgery

19

s/s of kidney stones

severe colicky flank pain on one side that comes in waves, N/V, hematuria

20

foods high in oxalate

rhubarb, spinach, beets, chocolate, tea

21

mnemonic for causes of urinary incontinence

DIAPPERS:
delirium
Infection
Atrophic Vaginitis
Pharmaceuticals
Psychological
Excess urinary output (CHF, hyperglycemia)
Restricted mobility
Stool impaction

22

a PVR of more than ___ is considered abnormal

100 mL

23

med trx for stress incontinence

TCA, estrogen

24

med trx for urge incontinence

anticholinergics-antimuscarinics

25

tolterodine tartrate (Detrol) and oxybutynin chloride (Ditropan)

antimuscarinic for urge incontinence

26

trx for calcium oxalate urinary stones

thiazide diuretic, toradol IM

27

urinary stones smaller than ___ pass spontaneously

4 mm

28

_____ are normally found in urine; whereas _____ in urine indicate infection.

nitrates; nitrites

29

what to think when patient c/o frequency and urgency but has negative UA

pregnancy, STI, atrophic vaginitis, DM

30

1st choice atbx for UTI

nitrofurantoin

31

atbx for UTI that is safe in pregnancy

1st choice: nitrofurantoin, 2nd choice: cephalosporin

32

fluoroquinolone for UTI is not used for

those less than 18, pregnant women

33

avoid these bladder irritants for those with UTI

caffeine, alcohol, carbonation

34

caused by detrusor instability

urge incontinence

35

nonpharm trx for incontinence

weight loss, quit smoking, timed voiding, Kegel exercises, decrease fluids after dinner

36

risk factors for bladder cancer

age greater than 40, smoking, occupational hx

37

trx for pyelonephritis

cipro or levo x 14 days

38

trx for pyelonephritis if allergic to quinolone

ceftriaxone and augmentin

39

creatinine production is related to

muscle mass

40

hyaline casts can be caused by

dehydration, vigorous exercise

41

Crystal casts have

no clinical significance

42

RBC casts can be caused by

UTI, glomerulonephritis

43

WBC casts can be caused by

inflammation or infection, pyelonephritis

44

epithelial casts can be caused by

acute tubular necrosis, hepatitis