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Flashcards in Infectious Disease Deck (86):
1

first generation cephalosporins

cephalexin (Keflex) cefadroxil (Duricef)

2

second generation cephalosporin

cefuroxime (Ceftin), cefprozil (cefzil)

3

sulfa drugs

TMP/SMX (bactrim, septra)

4

primary prevention is

to prevent disease, injury, or condition

5

personal safety promotion such as wearing a seatbelt, airbag, and helmet is an example of

primary prevention

6

education about immunization and using sunscreen is an example of

primary prevention

7

promoting a healthy lifestyle is an example of

primary prevention

8

secondary prevention is to

detect disease as early as possible

9

a lab test used to screen for a disease (CBC for anemia) is an example of

secondary prevention

10

USPSTF and screening mammograms are examples of

secondary prevention

11

screening for suicide and depression is an example of

secondary prevention

12

BSE and TSE are examples of

secondary prevention

13

tertiary prevention is to

limit further harm

14

cardiac rehab, PT/OT, SLP is an example of

tertiary prevention

15

an exercise program for an obese person is an example of

tertiary prevention

16

cancer with the highest morbidity/mortality

lung cancer

17

most common cause of gynecological cancer

uterine cancer

18

when to start screening for breast cancer

start at age 50-75 every 2 years

19

Gluten foods

wheat, rye, barley, oats (breads, cereals, cookies, cakes, pasta)

20

examples of monounsaturated fats

nuts, olive oil, sunflower seeds

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examples of magnesium rich foods

some nuts, whole wheat

22

examples of potassium rich foods

most fruits (apricot, banana, orange), some veggies (brussel sprouts)

23

gluten-free foods

rice, corn, potatoes, peanuts, soy, beans

24

screening for prostate cancer

not recommended

25

influenza intranasal spray is for those

age 2-49

26

influenza intranasal spray is contraindicated in those with

asthma, COPD, renal failure, DM; pregnancy; children on ASA therapy

27

earliest a child can get flu vaccine

6 months

28

if patient had only one hep B injection, then

complete series; check hep B titers within 60 days of 3rd dose

29

cause of hand foot and mouth disease

coxsackie A16

30

hand foot and mouth disease is common in children

less than 5

31

fifth's disease is caused by

parovirus B19

32

s/s of fifth's disease

prodrome with fever, malaise, sore throat; then rash begins on cheeks and spreads to trunk (lacy rash)

33

children with fifth's disease can return to school

during rash phase when afebrile for more than 24 hours.

34

cause of roseola

human herpes virus 6

35

higher risk of Cdiff with this atbx

clindamycin

36

atbx that's only indication is for community acquired PNA

telithromycin (Ketek)

37

adverse effects of erythromycin

GI distress

38

this atbx has a risk of prolong QT intervals (torsades)

macrolides

39

MOA of beta lactam drugs

have a protective barrier over the beta lactam ring that prevent them from being destroyed by beta lactamase

40

example of beta lactam drugs

PCN, cephalosporin

41

first generation cephalosporins have activity against

gram positive bacteria

42

second generation cephalosporins have activity against

gram positive and gram negative

43

broad spectrum pcn (amoxicillin and ampicillin) have activity against

gram positive and some gram negative bacteria

44

some women will c/o this when taking amoxicillin

candida vaginitis; recommend taking with probiotic

45

cephalosporins that are good for ear infection and sinus infections

cefuroxime (2nd gen) and cefixime (3rd gen)

46

fluoroquinolones are effective against

gram negative, gram positive, and atypical

47

ciprofloxacin coverage

narrow spectrum quinolone (gram neg and atypical)

48

treatment for traveler's diarrhea

ciprofloxacin 500 mg bid x 3 days

49

This atbx has the best activity against Pseudomonas aeruoginosa (gram negative)

ciprofloxacin

50

patients at highest risk of quinolone tendon rupture

those on steroids, those older than 60

51

sulfonamides have activity against

gram negative bacteria

52

other sulfa-type drugs

TMP-SMX, thiazide, sulfonyureas, Cox-2 inhibitor

53

dosing for Hep A vaccine

2 doses at 0 and 6-12 months

54

dosing for Hep B vaccine

3 doses; first 2 one month apart, third dose 6 months later

55

Meningitis vaccine for those older than 56

MPSV4

56

HPV vaccine

for females 19-26 years old and males 9-26 years old. 3 doses at 0, 1-2, and 6 months

57

3rd generation cephalosporins provide coverage against

weak gram +; gram negative; beta lactamase;
The extended spectrum have better gram +, gram -, and beta lactam coverage

58

extended spectrum 3rd gen cephalosporins

ceftriaxone (Rocephin), cefdinir (Omnicef), cefpodoxime (Vantin), cefditoren (Spectracef)

59

regular 3rd gen cephalosporins

ceftibuten (Cedax), cefixime (Suprax)

60

top 3 gram positive bugs

staph, strept, enterococcus

61

staphylococcus is mostly a

skin bug

62

streptococcus is mostly a

throat and lung bug

63

enterococcus is mostly a

urinary tract bug

64

other misc gram + bugs

listeria, c. diff, tetanus, anthrax, diptheria

65

basis of PCN and cephalosporin allergy

each drug has a beta-lactam ring; if the patient has allergy to beta lactam ring, then they are allergic to both ceph and pcn

66

Never give a cephalosporin to a patient if PCN reaction was

anaphylaxis or hives

67

Ok to give a cephalosporin to a patient if PCN reaction was

morbilliform rash (maculopapular rash that can sometimes be itchy).

68

what is beta lactamase?

an enzyme that bacteria produce to destroy the beta lactam ring of an atbx

69

atbx that provide beta lactam coverage

Augmentin and 3rd gen cephalosporins

70

Penicillins do NOT cover

staphylococcus

71

This drug can kill DRSP at high doses

amoxicillin (2g bid in adults and 80-90 mcg/kg/day for children)

72

Augmentin coverage

gram +, gram -, beta lactamase

73

how to tell if a bug produce beta-lactamase?

if the patient had an atbx in the past 90 days

74

sulfonamides provide coverage against

gram negative (not E.coli d/t high resistance) and MRSA

75

tetracyclines provide coverage against

gram negative, atypicals, and MRSA

76

Macrolides provide coverage against

atypical pathogens (gram +); not strept or enterococcus d/t high resistance

77

3rd generation respiratory fluoroquinolones

levofloxacin

78

4th generation respiratory fluoroquinolones

moxifloxacin (Avelox), gemifloxacin (Factive)

79

difference in coverage between 3rd and 4th generation respiratory fluoroquinolones

3rd gen provide coverage for gram neg above and below belt; 4th gen only provide coverage for gram neg above the belt

80

this flouroquinolone should not be used for UTI

4th gen: moxifloxacin (Avelox), gemifloxacin (Factive); only provide gram neg coverage above the belt.

81

nitrofurantoin concentrates in

bladder

82

Metronidazole (Flagyl) provides coverage against

gram negative

83

Lincosamides (clindamycin) provides coverage against

gram positive

84

Linezolid (Zyvox) provides coverage against

gram positive

85

vancomycin provides coverage against

gram positive

86

trx for C.diff

Flagyl or oral vanc (NOT IV so that it can concentrate in gut)