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Flashcards in Neuro Deck (69):
1

these people are most likely to have a secondary headache

age greater than 40

2

most common presenting symptoms of brain tumor in adults

headache, seizures

3

red flags in history for someone with headache

sudden onset, "first or worst headache", fever, change in LOC

4

red flags in physical exam for someone with headache

age older than 40, neck stiffness, neuro deficits, papilledema

5

papilledema is the swelling of the

optic disc

6

CT is ordered to look at

"hard things" like bone

7

MRI is ordered to look at

soft tissue

8

characteristics of migraine headache

POUND:
pulsatile
One day duration (4-72 hours)
unilateral
N/V, photophobia
Disabling causing interruption in daily activities

9

characteristics of tension headache

bilateral, tightness/pressure/bandlike, may continue daily activities

10

characteristics of cluster headache

unilateral, excruciating pain that peaks and lasts 30-90 min, unilateral conjunctiva/tearing or rhinorrhea

11

s/s of temporal arteritis

jaw claudication, fever, visual loss, pain in temporal area

12

s/s of pseudotumor cerebrii

transient visual changes, intracranial noise

13

MOA of triptans

cause cerebral artery constriction

14

caution when giving triptans in those with

CAD- can cause coronary artery constriction

15

s/s of migraine with aura

hyperosmia, blurred vision, metallic taste in mouth

16

common triggers of migraines

stress, menses, skipping meals, weather, sleep, odors, ETOH, smoking, foods

17

prophylaxis meds for migraines

beta blockers, topiramate, Depakote

18

migraine with and without aura increases risk of

ischemic stroke

19

absolute contraindication in women with migraine with aura

oral contraceptive use

20

Women with migraines can have OCP if they meet these criteria

less than 35 years old, have migraine without aura, no risk factors for stroke.

21

triptan education

can cause rebound headaches with overuse

22

s/s of trigeminal neuralgia

sharp, piercing, unilateral facial pain

23

trigeminal neuralgia involves the

5th cranial nerve

24

most important risk factor for temporal arteritis

aging (average age is 72)

25

temporal arteritis is closely linked to

polymyalgia rheumatica

26

Bell's palsy affects cranial nerve

7 (facial)

27

s/s of Bell's palsy

unilateral droopy eye, facial paralysis or weakness, drooping mouth

28

duration of bell's palsy

1-3 weeks

29

management of bell's palsy

EYE protection with lubrication and patch

30

peripheral vertigo involves the

vestibular system

31

central vertigo involves the

brainstem or cerebellum

32

s/s of peripheral vertigo

severe vertigo, N/V, lasting less than 1 min; precipitated with positional changes

33

s/s of central vertigo

severe vertigo that is long lasting, prolonged nystagmus, impaired gait,

34

most common causes of peripheral vertigo

BPPV, Meniere's disease, vestibular neuritis

35

trx of vertigo

antihistamines, benzos

36

characteristics of parkinson's

resting tremor, bradykinesia, rigidity

37

side effects of levodopa

nausea, dizziness, confusion, hallucinations, orthostatic hypotension

38

s/s of essential tremor

bilateral tremor of hands, arms, head, voice, chin, lip

39

essential tremor rarely involves

the lower extremities

40

essential tremor is more apparent with

goal directed movements

41

patients report that this makes essential tremor better

alcohol

42

trx for essential tremor

propranolol or primidone

43

autoimmune disease characterized by weakness in ocular, limb, and respiratory muscles

myasthenia gravis

44

trx for mild cognitive impairment

No med trx, just exercise

45

New name for dementia

major neurocognitive disorder

46

behavior disturbances that accompany dementia

restlessness, wandering, agitation, difficulty concentrating

47

how to diagnose dementia

no labs or imaging; MMSE test

48

this score on MMSE indicates dementia

less than 24

49

differential diagnosis with dementia

meds (anticholinergics, sedatives, analgesics), stroke, depression

50

labs to order with dementia

CBC, CMP, vitamin B12, folate, TSH

51

CN I

olfactory- smell

52

CN II

optic - vision

53

CN III

occulomotor - eye movements

54

CN IV

trochlear- downward, internal rotation of the eye

55

CN V

trigeminal- sensation to face, jaw movement

56

CN VI

abducens- lateral deviation of eye

57

CN VII

facial- facial muscle, taste

58

CN VIII

vestibulocochlear- balance, hearing

59

CN IX

glossopharyngeal- movement of pharynx

60

CN X

vagus- gag reflex

61

CN XI

spinal accessory- sternomastoid and trapezius muscle

62

CN XII

hypoglossal- movement of tongue

63

mnemonic for cranial nerve

On Old Olympus's Towering Tops A Finn and German Viewed Some Hops

64

Patellar reflex measures

L2-L4

65

Achilles reflex measures

L5-S2

66

biceps reflex measures

C5-C6

67

triceps reflex measures

C6-C7

68

nuchal rigidity

when the patient cannot touch chest with chin; positive in meningitis

69

s/s of polymyalgia rheumatica

morning stiffness and aching in shoulders, neck, hips, and torso.