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Flashcards in Hematology Deck (80):
1

The initial Hgb value during active bleeding may be

normal; it takes approx 24 hours after hemorrhage for CBC to show true H/H.

2

s/s of Vitamin B12 deficiency

peripheral neuropathy, ataxia, impaired memory, dementia

3

a cancer of the b cells

Hodgkin's lymphoma

4

risk factors for Hodgkin's lymphoma

age 20-40 or older than 60, white, male

5

s/s of Hodgkin's lymphoma

night sweat, fever, pain with ingestion of alcohol, painless enlarged neck lymph nodes, anorexia

6

A cancer of B cells and killer cells

Non-Hodgkin lymphoma

7

risk factor for Non-Hodgkin lymphoma

greater than 60 years old

8

which lymphoma has worse prognosis

non-hodgkin

9

a cancer of the plasma cells

multiple myeloma

10

s/s of multiple myeloma

fatigue, weakness, and bone pain in back or chest

11

diagnostic findings in multiple myeloma

proteinuria with Bence-Jones protein, hypercalcemia, normocytic anemia

12

thrombocytopenia is

platelet less than 150,000

13

normal platelet count

150,000 - 450,000

14

bruising in children

normal if in distal upper and lower extremities. Abnormal if accompanied by petechiae/purpura, large hematomas

15

Normal H&H in males

Hgb: 14-18
Hct: 42-52%

16

Normal H&H in females

Hgb: 12-16
Hct: 37-47%

17

Hgb in those who live in high-altitude areas are

elevated (secondary polycythemia)

18

a measure of the avg color of the RBC in a sample of blood

MCHC

19

A measure of available transferrin that is left unbound to iron

TIBC

20

TIBC is elevated in ____

iron deficiency anemia b/c there is not enough iron for transport

21

labs in thalassemia

low H&H, low MCV, low MCHC, low MCH, normal TIBC, high RDW, normal ferritin

22

Most sensitive test for iron deficiency anemia

serum ferritin

23

measure of the variability of the size of RBC

RDW

24

reticulocytes are immature RBCs that still have ____; they mature into RBC in

nuclei; 24 hours

25

reticulocytosis occurs after

supplementation of iron, vit B12, folate, acute bleeding, hemolysis, leukemia

26

poikilocytosis is seen with

severe iron deficiency anemia

27

Types of microcytic anemia

iron deficiency, thalassemia, sideroblastic

28

Types of macrocytic anemia

vitamin B12, folate deficiency, pernicious

29

Types of normocytic anemia

anemia of chronic disease, sickle cell, aplastic, hemolytic

30

gold standard test to diagnose for sickle cell and thalassemia

hemoglobin electrophoresis

31

causes of secondary polycythemia

chronic smokers, COPD, residents of high-altitude

32

s/s of iron deficiency anemia

fatigue, pallor, glossitis (shiny red tongue), angular chelitis (irritated fissures at corners of mouth), pica.

33

most common cause of iron deficiency anemia

blood loss

34

labs in iron deficiency anemia

low H&H, low MCV, low MCHC/MCH, low ferritin, low iron, high TIBC, high RDW

35

Diagnostic test for pernicious anemia

high antiparietal antibodies

36

anemia in those with chronic disease or inflammatory disease such as RA

normocytic anemia

37

Howell-Jolly bodies seen in

sickle cell anemia

38

trx for iron deficiency anemia

ferrous sulfate 325 mg TID between meals x3-6 months

39

examples of iron rich foods

red meat, black beans, green leafy veggies

40

avoid taking iron supplements with

antacids, dairy, quinolones, tetracyclines

41

A genetic disorder in which the bone marrow produces abnormal hgb

thalassemia

42

Alpha thalassemia is more common in

Chinese, filipinos, thai

43

beta thalassemia is more common in

Mediterranean's

44

trx for thalassemia minor

none

45

it compliant patient with iron deficiency anemia has failure to respond, then consider

thalassemia, malabsorption (Celiac)

46

Educate about iron poisoning in children less than

6 years old

47

destruction of all blood cells caused by either radiation, viral infection, adverse rx to drug

aplastic anemia

48

gold standard diagnostic for aplastic anemia

bone marrow aspiration

49

an autoimmune disorder caused by destruction of parietal cells in the fundus resulting in loss of intrinsic factor production

pernicious anemia

50

This is needed to absorb vitamin B12

intrinsic factor

51

causes of vitamin B12 deficiency

pernicious anemia, vegans, alcoholics

52

diet sources of vitamin B12

meat, poultry, eggs, milk, cheese

53

s/s of pernicious anemia

peripheral neuropathy, difficulty in fine motor skills, abnormal Romberg, decreased reflexes

54

treatment for perncious anemia

lifetime vit B12 (injection, nasal spray, oral)

55

diagnostic for pernicious anemia

decreased B12; decreased folate, positive antiparietal antibody

56

drugs that can cause folate deficiency anemia

dilantin, TMP-SMZ, methotrexate

57

labs in folate deficiency anemia

low H&H, high MCV, low folate

58

food high in folate

green leafy veggies, grains, beans

59

trx for folate deficiency anemia

folic acid 1-5 mg per day

60

sickle cell anemia is passed by

genetics (autosomal recessive)

61

Screening test for sickle cell disease

Sickledex, but diagnosed by hemoglobin electrophoresis

62

When evaluating a patient with high MCV (macrocytic), next step is to

order folate and vitamin B12

63

Sideroblastic anemia is a lead level of

greater than 10

64

G6PD is passed down as

x-linked recessive

65

meds to avoid with G6PD deficiency

antimalarials, sulfa, aspirin, nitrofurantoin, Bactrim

66

meds that an cause vitamin B12 deficiency

cochicine, PPI, biguanide

67

treatment for neonatal hyperbilirubinemia

increase breastfeeding, phototherapy

68

cause of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia

High levels of unconjugated bilirubin d/t Hgb breakdown and inability of liver to excrete

69

Rh incompatibility occurs when a Rh ____ mother has a Rh ____ infant

negative; positive

70

this vaccine should be given in those undergoing a splenectomy

pneumonia 2 weeks prior

71

most common congenital bleeding disorder

Von Willebrand's

72

labs for von willebrand's

normal CBC, PT/PTT/INR;
test for factor VIII and vWF

73

labs in hemophilia

normal PT/PTT/INR;
aPTT prolonged

74

labs in acute lymphocytic leukemia

VERY high WBCs (blast cells), low RBC, low platelets

75

hallmark of chronic myelocytic leukemia (CML)

Philadelphia chromosome

76

most common s/s of CML

splenomegaly

77

diagnosis of Hodgkin lymphoma

presence of Reed-Sternberg cells

78

during a viral infection, a CBC will have

neutrophil (poly) and lymphocytes will be close in number

79

monocytes become elevated when

patient has been sick for more than 24 hours

80

during a bacterial infection, a CBC will have

high WBC; neutrophil (poly) and lymphocytes will be far apart in number