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Flashcards in GI Deck (31)
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Labs indicating hepato cellular damage

AST, ALT

1

Lab markers for biliary damage

Alk phos, GGT

2

Lab markers for liver function (most important in prognosis for cirrhosis)

Serum albumin levels, Prothrombin time Bilirubin levels (all made in liver)

3

Cause of hyper Acute transplant rejection and grace/Histology description

Cause: preformed antibodies in a host against donor
Morph: Gross mottling and cyanosis arterial fibroid necrosis and capillary thrombotic occlusio

4

Cause of acute transplant rejection and gross/histology

Cause: donor antigens induces humoral/Cellular activation of immune cells
Humoral: C4d deposition, neutrophil infiltrate, necrotizing vasculitis
Cellular: lymphocytic interstitial infiltrate and endothelitis

5

Cause of chronic transplant rejection and gross/histology

Cause: chronic low-grade immune reaction refractory to immunosuppression
Morphology: vascular wall thickening and luminal narrowing, interstitial fibrosis and parenchyma atrophy

7

Treatment for carcinoid syndrome symptoms and mechanism of action

Octreotide
somatostatin Analog that inhibits secretion of hormones, stops secretory diarrhea

8

malformations associated with imperforate anus

most common: urogenital tract anomolies
VACTRL

9

suppression of 7 alpha hydroxylase

increased cholesterol because there is decreased conversion to bile acids--> increase in gallstones

10

ulcers in what part of the GI tract is least associated with carcinoma in that location

duodenum

11

most likely outcome after HCV infection

stable chronic hepatitis

12

most likely outcome after HBV infection

clearance of infection

13

spider angiomata and gynecomastia in cirrhosis are due to

hyperestrogenism

14

what condition predisposes a patient to hematogenous dissemntation of candida

low neutrophil count

15

calories from 1g of
protein
carobs
fat

protein and carbs: 1g=4 cal
fat: 1g=9cal

16

type B chronic gastritis

erythema of antral mucosa with inflammatory cell infiltrates
associated with h. pylori
increased risk for gastric adenocarcinoma and MA:T lymphoma

17

oral antibacteriocidal antibiotic with minimal systemic absorption for C diff colitis

fidaxomicin
vancomycin and metronidazole are bacteriostatic

18

liver bx showing caverous blood filled vascular spaces

caverous hemangioma
most common benign liver tumor
do not bx--> very bloody

19

How does crohns cause kidney stones

impaired bile acid absoprtion--> increased fat in stool
fat binds Ca in stool
oxalate cannot bind Ca and is reabsporbed (normally binds Ca and cannot be absorbed)
forms ca oxalate stones

20

virus that buds from cell NUCLEAR membrane

CMV
herpes virus

21

define mucosal erosions

does not extend through the muscularis mucosa

ulcer penetrates muscularis mucosa

22

How does shigella intiate infection

gets into GI mucosa through M cells in Peyer's patches in ileum through endocytosis
lyses endosome and multiples--> spreads through epithelial cells

23

lynch syndrome associated with what mutation and problem

p53, defect in DNA mismatch repair genes

24

liver bx with eosionphilic ground glass appearance
cytoplasm filled with spheres and tubules

HBV

25

what is the function of proparkyotic 16s rRNA

it is part of the 30s ribosome and binds to prokaryotic mRNA before AUG to prep for protein translation

once bound to 30s--> initiator tRNA binds and 50s ribosome binds to start translation

26

liver disease in person having unprotected sex

HBV

27

What step in TCA cycle requires thiamine (B1)

alpha ketoglutarate dehydrogenase
alpha ketoglutarate --> succinyl CoA

28

describe the mechanism of brown gallstones

infection of biliary tract--> release of beta glucuronidases--> increases unconj bilirubin

brown stones

29

abdominal pain, greasy stool, weight loss
SI bx showing foamy macrophages with PAS positive granules

Whipples disease: Tropheryma whippelii

granules= partially digested bacteria in lysosomes
may also have polyarthritis, psychiatric cardiac abnormailities

Tx with abx

30

what is pink on a PAS stain with diastase

polysaccarides in fungal cell wall
mucosubstances secreted from the epithelia
basement membranes

diastase digests glycogen--> washed out during processing.