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Flashcards in pulm Deck (45)
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1

mechanism of action of cromolyn

inhibits mast cell degranulation

2

most common bacteria causing PNA

strep pneumo

3

rifampin monotherapy

N meningitis prophylaxis for those know to be exposed

used with other meds in pulm infxn because high occurrence of resistance

4

tx for idopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension while awaiting transplant

Bosentan
competitive antagonist of endothelin receptors

endothelin= vasconstrictor that stim endothelial proliferation
tx decreases pulmonary arterial pressure and lessens progression of vascular and R ventricular hypertrophy

5

rifampin mechanism of action

inhibits DNA dependent RNA synthesis--> no transcription

6

What does the acid fast stain bind

mycolic acid

7

effect of COPD on cerebral vasculature

COPD--> increased CO2 and decreased O2
brain needs more O2 so it decreases cerebral vascular resistance.
Cannot increase O2 by increasing flow because brain will swell--> bad

8

Where on the lung capacity curve is the Pulm Vasc Resistance the lowest

at the Function residual capacity

9

stim of vagus nerve to the lung

parasympathetic stim with ACh acting on M3 receptors--> bronchoconstriction and increased mucous secretion--> increases work of breathing

10

what things can cause decreased pulmonary compliance

lung cannot stretch well

pulmonary fibrosis
pulmonary edema (like from heart failure)
insufficient surfactant

11

mucicarmine stain

Cryptococcus neoformans
detects polysaccaride capsule (stains red)

12

what enzyme is functioning in the nuclelous?

RNA polymerase I making rRNA

13

treatment for RSV Viral bronchiolitis

use ribavarin for this with immunodeficiency, prematurity, or cardiopulm disease

14

cystic fibrosis is what kind of transmembrane receptor?

ATP gated chloride channel

15

Why is clindamycin a good Abx for drunk with aspiration PNA?

covers anaerobic oral flora and aerobic bacteria

16

Varenicline mechanism of action

aka chantix

partial agonist of nicotinic ACh receptors
decreases withdrawal cravings and rewarding effects of nicotine

17

pleasure and addiction center of the brain

nucleus accumbens

18

obstructive sleep apnea likely to develop?

pulmonary HTN

19

where is the pulmonary lesion in secondary TB?

apical lesion

20

lower lobe lung lesion with calcified lymphnode on the same side

primary TB

21

vitamin deficiency cause of squamous metaplasia of epithelium to keratinizing epithelia

Vit A deficiency

Vit A required for normal differentiation of epithelial cells

22

cause of the color in green sputum or pus

myeloperoxidase is released from neutrophil granules
it contains heme pigmentation and is blue green

23

stabbed in the L fifth intercostal space, mid clavicular line

will hit L lung and possibly L ventricle if deep enough

24

mechanism of action of N-acetylcysteine in CF

breaks disufide bonds within mucous--> loosens mucous

25

mechanism of tissue damage in M tuburculosis

type 4 hypersensitivity

26

what is the molecular abnormality of CF?

abnormal post translational processing of CFTR--> sents protein to proteosome instead of membrane

27

mechanism of action of streptomycin

inhibits initiation of protein synthesis by bind and distorting prokaryotic ribsome 30s

28

What factors involved in asthma have symptoms relieved when treated with antagonists

leukotrienes C4, D4, E4, and Ach

29

acid fast bacteria in HIV pos with CD4 count of 40

MAC

30

treatment and prophylaxis of MAC

prophylaxis: Azithromycin

treatment: clarythromycin or azithromycin with rifabutin or ethambutol