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Flashcards in endo Deck (76)
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1

Where is the damage in transient central DI

posterior pituitary

2

where is the damage in permenant central DI

hypothalalmus

3

glyburide (class of drug)

sulfonylurea: increases insulin secretion

4

what class of drug is anastrozole

aromatase inhibitor: inhibits synthesis of estrogen from androgenic substrate

5

mechanism of action for SERMs (tamoxifen)

breast: anti-estrogenic used for estrogen positive breast cancer
endometrial: stim effect--> endometrial hyperplasia

6

how much of a population is within 1 st dev of mean, 2 SD, 3 SD

1: 68%
2: 95%
3: 99.7%

7

Side effects of amiodarone
what test should you order before starting

thyroid dysfunction (order TFT)--> hypothyroid due to excessive iodine because amiodarone is 40% iodine
corneal microdeposits
blue grey skin discoloration
drug related heptititis
pulmonary fibrosis

8

What does FSH stim in males

sertoli cells to produce inhibin B, this decreases FSH by negative inhibition.
with one testicle--> decreased sertoli cells --> decreased inhibin B--> elevated FSH

9

In infertility treatment with menotropin and hCG, what does hCG mimic

LH surge

10

symptoms of hypo or hyper thyroid with neck pain and recent viral infection, increased ESR, decreased iodine uptake

subacute thyroiditis

11

histology of subacute thyroiditis

mixed cellular infiltration with occasional multinucleate giant cells

12

MEN 1

pituitary, parathyroid, pancreas (diamond)

13

MEN 2A

medullary thyroid carcinoma, parathyroid, pheochromocytoma (square)

14

MEN 2B

medullary thyroid carcinoma, oral/intestinal ganglioneuromatosis (marfans habitus), pheochromocytoma (triangle)

15

mutation associated with MEN 2A/B

ret oncogene

16

embryonic origin of endocrine organs

neural crest

17

What is neurophysin

carrier proteins for oxytocin and ADH and shuttle them from hypothalamus to posterior pituitary
mutation leads to central DI from hypothalamus

18

what happens to portion of proinsulin cleaved off to form insulin?

secreted after it is converted to C protein in golgi

19

mechanism of action pioglitazone

thiazolidinediones decrease insulin resistance by binding transcriptional regulator in glucose and limit metabolism (peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma)

20

mechanism of action thioamide (PTUm methimazole)

inhibits thyroid peroxidase --> inhibits thyroid hormone formation

21

mechanism of action of perchlorate, pertechnetate

blocks iodine absorption in thyroid by competitive inhibition

22

electrolyte changes in addison's disease

decreased aldosterone:
Na decreases
K increases
H increases (non anion gap acidosis)
Cl increases
HCO3 decreases

23

What receptors inhibit insulin secretion?
what receptors stim insulin secretion?
what is predom

alpha 2 adrenergic inhibit and is predom
beta 2 adrenergic stim insulin. effects only seen with beta blockers

24

Describe the CBC on glucocorticoids
neutrophils
basophils
eosinophils
lymphocytes
monocytes

neutrophils increase
all others decrease

25

Mech of peripheral neuropathy and cataracts in DM

aldose reductase converts glucose to sorbitol which accumulates --> osmotic cellular injury

26

mech of atherosclerosis in DM

glycosylation (sugars stuck to amino acids) products accumulate and crosslink with collagen in blood vessels and interstitial tissues --> atherosclerosis

27

female baby with ambiguous genitalia and maternal virilization

aromatase deficiency leading to build up of androgens (not getting converted to estrogens)

28

labs before starting metformin

renal function (creatinine) because it is contraindicated in renal fail

29

genotypical male with female phenotype

17 alpha hydroxylase def

30

side effect of PTU, methimazole

agranulocytosis
suspect this in patients on meds for hyperthyroid with fever and order CBC with diff