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Flashcards in GI Cont. Deck (51)
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31

Can C. Dif be part of the normal flora?

Yes

32

What is a major cause of C. Dif infection?

-Broad spectrum antibiotic use
(because it kills normal flora)

33

Pathogenesis of C. Diif

-Secretes enterotoxin
-Binds to epithelium of the colon
-Causes an inflammatory response
-Produces cellular, purulent exudate
-Causes necrosis of colonic mucosa

34

What is the #1 cause of nosocomial diarrhea

C. Dif
-secretes enterotoxin and produces a cellular purulent exudate and causes necrosis

35

This is the poor absorption of fats, electrolytes, minerals, and water

Malabsorption

36

This is malabsorption with fatty stools

Sprue

37

S&S of Malabsorption

-Large, bulky, greasy stools
-Excessive bowel gas
-Distention

38

Describe luminal malabsorpion

-Happens in the lumen
-Usually due to deficiency of pancreatic or liver function
-no lipase or defective bile acids

39

What are causes of intestinal malabsorpion

-Surgically shortened bowel
-Lack of brush border enzyme
-Gluten sensitivity

40

Complications common to sprue

-Anemia (poor B12, iron, or folate)
-Bleeding (from decreased vitamin K)
-Brittle, weak bones (from decreased Ca and Vitamin D)
-Osmotic edema (from decreased proteins)

41

Diverticula have a very _____ wall composed of _____ and ______ only

Thin wall
-Mucosa and submucosa only
-NO MUSCLE present

42

Where do the mucosa and submucosa extrude through the musclular walls?

-Points where small arteries penetrate from the external surface

43

T/F- Colonic diverticulosis is uncommon in people who eat a traditional diet rich in grains, fruits, and veggies

True

44

Diets with small amounts of non-digestible bulk= more compact feces=

Easier to pass

45

Straining at stool causes...

Increased pressure

46

Stasis=

INFECTION

47

Pathogenesis of a blockage in the lumen

-Blockage
-Increase pressure
-Decreased blood flow
-Ischemia
-Infarction
-Necrosis
-Infection/inflammation

48

What are complications for diverticulosis

-Perforation
-Peritonitis
-Abcess
-Hemorrhage
-Fistulas
-Stenosis

49

Pathogenesis for appendicitis

-Obstruction of orifice
-Distension of lumen
-Pressure increases
-Stasis and ischemia
-Proliferation of bacteria
-Necrosis and perforation
-Complications

50

What is the most common cause of an abdominal emergency?

Appendicitis

51

S&S of appendicitis

-Periumbilical carmping/pain
-Localizes to RLQ
-Nausea, vomiting, anorexia
-RLQ tenderness= irritated peritoneum --> ilius