GI-esophagus (1) Flashcards Preview

Unit 6: Pathology > GI-esophagus (1) > Flashcards

Flashcards in GI-esophagus (1) Deck (20)
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1
Q

what is the most common variant of a tracheoesophageal fistula?

A

proximal esophagus atresia (“blind pouch”)

distal esophagus comes off the trachea

2
Q

what are two major clinical findings in the TE fistula (proximal esophagus atresia variant)

A

baby will shoot its food back up

polyhydraminos- baby can’t consume amniot fluid

3
Q

TE fistulas can be assocaited with vater syndrome, what is this?

A

V-vertebral defects
A-anal atresia
TE- TE fistula
R-renal dysplasia

4
Q

what disorder is the following:

“thin protrusion of esophageal mucosa, most often in upper esophagus”

A

esophageal web

5
Q

what are the 4 key layers of teh GI track?

A

mucosa (lumen side)
submucosa
muscularis propria
serosa

6
Q

how does a person with esophageal web resent?

A

dysphagia for poorly chewed food

7
Q

what is the most important manifestation of esophageal web?

A

plummer vinson syndrome

8
Q

describe some features of plummer vinson syndrome

A

severe iron deficiency anemia

beefy red tongue with atrophic glossitis

9
Q

male or female predominance of plummer vinson syndrome?

A

90% of cases are female

10
Q

what disease:

“lower esophageal narrowing, usually seen at GE junction”

A

schatski ring

11
Q

tell me about the epithelium of the esophagus in schatski ring

A

upper surface of mucosal ring has stratified squamous epithelium and lower has columnar epithelium

12
Q

zenker diverticulum: true or false diverticulum

A

false

13
Q

what causes zenker diverticulum

A

abnormal pressure in the pharynx when swallowing (usually due to abnormal swallowing) and the pressure causes a protrusion through mucosa

14
Q

how does zenker diverticulum present

A

Can be asymptomatic or just feel like they have something in the back of their throat
or presents as dysphagia, obstruction and halitosis (food gets stuck and rots in the throat)

15
Q

what are epiphrenic diverticula?

A

true diverticula located immediately above the diaphragm. reflux esophagitis may play role in pathogenesis

16
Q

what disease:

“longitudinal laceration of mucosa at GE junction”

A

mallory weiss syndrome

17
Q

what causes mallory weiss syndrome

A

severe vomitting (alcoholism or bulimia)

18
Q

how does mallory weiss syndrome present

A

painful hematemesis

19
Q

what is boerhaave syndrome? when is it seen?

A

risk if the person has mallory weiss syndrome
rupture of the esophagus
air goes up the mediastinum and can get into the subcutaneous tissues (subcutaneous emphysema)

20
Q

what do you hear in boerhaave syndrome

A

you can hear crackling underneath the skin (the air under the skin)