what is the most common variant of a tracheoesophageal fistula?
proximal esophagus atresia (“blind pouch”)
distal esophagus comes off the trachea
what are two major clinical findings in the TE fistula (proximal esophagus atresia variant)
baby will shoot its food back up
polyhydraminos- baby can’t consume amniot fluid
TE fistulas can be assocaited with vater syndrome, what is this?
TE- TE fistula
what disorder is the following:
“thin protrusion of esophageal mucosa, most often in upper esophagus”
what are the 4 key layers of teh GI track?
mucosa (lumen side)
how does a person with esophageal web resent?
dysphagia for poorly chewed food
what is the most important manifestation of esophageal web?
plummer vinson syndrome
describe some features of plummer vinson syndrome
severe iron deficiency anemia
beefy red tongue with atrophic glossitis
male or female predominance of plummer vinson syndrome?
90% of cases are female
“lower esophageal narrowing, usually seen at GE junction”
tell me about the epithelium of the esophagus in schatski ring
upper surface of mucosal ring has stratified squamous epithelium and lower has columnar epithelium
zenker diverticulum: true or false diverticulum
what causes zenker diverticulum
abnormal pressure in the pharynx when swallowing (usually due to abnormal swallowing) and the pressure causes a protrusion through mucosa
how does zenker diverticulum present
Can be asymptomatic or just feel like they have something in the back of their throat
or presents as dysphagia, obstruction and halitosis (food gets stuck and rots in the throat)
what are epiphrenic diverticula?
true diverticula located immediately above the diaphragm. reflux esophagitis may play role in pathogenesis
“longitudinal laceration of mucosa at GE junction”
mallory weiss syndrome
what causes mallory weiss syndrome
severe vomitting (alcoholism or bulimia)
how does mallory weiss syndrome present
what is boerhaave syndrome? when is it seen?
risk if the person has mallory weiss syndrome
rupture of the esophagus
air goes up the mediastinum and can get into the subcutaneous tissues (subcutaneous emphysema)
what do you hear in boerhaave syndrome
you can hear crackling underneath the skin (the air under the skin)