Large intestine neoplasms Flashcards Preview

Unit 6: Pathology > Large intestine neoplasms > Flashcards

Flashcards in Large intestine neoplasms Deck (20):
1

What are the two types of colonic polyps? Where do each occur

hyperplasic - hyperplasia, benign
-left colon - rectosigmoid
adenomatous - neoplastic
-rectosigmoid

2

What are the mutations that are needed for a polyp to turn malignant?

APC --> KRAS --> P53

3

What are three factors of a polyp that may indicate it will progress from an adenoma to a carcinoma?

1. size >2 cm
2. sessile growth - flat
3. villous (not tubular)

4

What is FAP?

auto dominant mutation of APC --> 1000s of polyps

5

What is the treatment for FAP?

colon and rectum are removed

6

What is gardeners syndrome ?

FAP, fibromatosis, osteomas

7

What is Turcot syndrome?

FAP , CNS tumors - medulloblastoma, glial tumors

8

When would a juvenile polyp occur? Are they malignant?

children <5
no0O0OOope they are benign

9

How does juvenile polyposis differ from a juvenile polyp?

there is an inc risk of progression to carcinoma since there are so many of them

10

What is peutz jeghers syndrome?

hamartomatous polyps throughout GI tract
mucocutaneous hyperpigmentation

11

When is the peak incidence of colorectal carcinoma?

60-70 years old

12

What is HNPCC? What cancers does it inc the risk of?

inherited mutation in DNA mismatch repair enzymes
-early age
-inc risk for colorectal, ovarian and endometrial carcinoma

13

When and how does screening occur for colorectal cancer?

begins at 50 years of age
colonoscopy - remove all polyps, test for occult blood

14

How does a left sided carcinoma differ from a right sided?

left sided "napkin ring lesion" - dec stool caliber

Right - iron deficiency anemia and vague pain

15

What infection is strongly associated with colorectal cancer?

Strep bovis endocarditis

16

What is a usual place of colorectal metastasis

mostly the liver

17

What is a useful serum marker for colorectal cancer? What specifically does it tell you>?

CEA
-good for assessing treatment response and detecting recurrence - not useful for screening

18

What is the typical appearance of the colon during a C diff. infection?

raised yellowish plaques - pseudomembranes

19

What is the likely cause of neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis?

ischemic event of intestinal mucosa

20

What type of babies are specifically prone to neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis?

premature infants after oral feeding