Large intestine neoplasms Flashcards Preview

Unit 6: Pathology > Large intestine neoplasms > Flashcards

Flashcards in Large intestine neoplasms Deck (20)
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1
Q

What are the two types of colonic polyps? Where do each occur

A

hyperplasic - hyperplasia, benign
-left colon - rectosigmoid
adenomatous - neoplastic
-rectosigmoid

2
Q

What are the mutations that are needed for a polyp to turn malignant?

A

APC –> KRAS –> P53

3
Q

What are three factors of a polyp that may indicate it will progress from an adenoma to a carcinoma?

A
  1. size >2 cm
  2. sessile growth - flat
  3. villous (not tubular)
4
Q

What is FAP?

A

auto dominant mutation of APC –> 1000s of polyps

5
Q

What is the treatment for FAP?

A

colon and rectum are removed

6
Q

What is gardeners syndrome ?

A

FAP, fibromatosis, osteomas

7
Q

What is Turcot syndrome?

A

FAP , CNS tumors - medulloblastoma, glial tumors

8
Q

When would a juvenile polyp occur? Are they malignant?

A

children <5

no0O0OOope they are benign

9
Q

How does juvenile polyposis differ from a juvenile polyp?

A

there is an inc risk of progression to carcinoma since there are so many of them

10
Q

What is peutz jeghers syndrome?

A

hamartomatous polyps throughout GI tract

mucocutaneous hyperpigmentation

11
Q

When is the peak incidence of colorectal carcinoma?

A

60-70 years old

12
Q

What is HNPCC? What cancers does it inc the risk of?

A

inherited mutation in DNA mismatch repair enzymes

  • early age
  • inc risk for colorectal, ovarian and endometrial carcinoma
13
Q

When and how does screening occur for colorectal cancer?

A

begins at 50 years of age

colonoscopy - remove all polyps, test for occult blood

14
Q

How does a left sided carcinoma differ from a right sided?

A

left sided “napkin ring lesion” - dec stool caliber

Right - iron deficiency anemia and vague pain

15
Q

What infection is strongly associated with colorectal cancer?

A

Strep bovis endocarditis

16
Q

What is a usual place of colorectal metastasis

A

mostly the liver

17
Q

What is a useful serum marker for colorectal cancer? What specifically does it tell you>?

A

CEA

-good for assessing treatment response and detecting recurrence - not useful for screening

18
Q

What is the typical appearance of the colon during a C diff. infection?

A

raised yellowish plaques - pseudomembranes

19
Q

What is the likely cause of neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis?

A

ischemic event of intestinal mucosa

20
Q

What type of babies are specifically prone to neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis?

A

premature infants after oral feeding