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Unit 6: Pathology > environmental > Flashcards

Flashcards in environmental Deck (28):
1

bacteriology of clostridia

gram positive spore forming obligate anaerobes
(require low tissue oxygenation)

2

What two diseases can C perfringens cause?

1. food poisoning
2. gas gangrene

3

Differentiate the paralysis from tetanus and botulism

tetanus - spastic paralysis
botulism - flaccid paralysis

4

What is the treatment or tetanus and botulism?

antitoxin NOT antibiotics

5

what antibiotic is notorious for causing C diff overgrowth

clindamycin

6

What infection " undulant fever and noncaseating granulomas"

Brucella

7

Where is yersinia infection endemic to? what is the vector?

US southwest
vector: fleas

8

Describe the two types of infections yersinia pestis can cause?

1. bubonic plague - fever, swollen LNs, DIC
2. pneumonic plague

9

Yersinia has a specific microscopic appearance - what is it

bipolar staining - safety pin

10

Yersinia enterocolitica causes what infection?

pseudoappendicitis

11

What is the bacteriology of yersinia

member of enterobacteriacae so gram - Rod
coagulase positive
facultative intracellular

12

Bacteriology of tularemia

gram negative coccus
facultative intracellular

13

What is the reservoir of tularemia?

rabbits

14

what are three different presentations of tularemia infection?

1. ulceroglandular - tick bite
2. pneumonia - aerosols - skinning rabbits
3. typhoidal - ingestion of infected meat

15

bacteriology of anthrax

gram positive rod

16

Describe the three presentations of anthrax?

1. cutaneous - black eschar
2. pulmonary - mediastinal widening
3. GI - vomiting and bloody diarrhea

17

Bacteriology of listeria

gram + rod
facultative intracellular
beta hemolytic

18

what special virulence factor does listeria have

actin jet motility - pokes through neighboring cells

19

What is a usual source of listeria infection?

soft cheeses, deli meats, unpasteurized milk

20

Who is listeria a particularly dangerous infection for?

pregnant women and neonates
immunocomprommised

21

What is the most common cause of meningitis in AIDs, cancer, transplant patients

AIDs - crypto
cancer, transplant - listeria

22

what is the bacteriology of actinomyces

gram positive branching rod
anaerobic

23

What is the reservoir for actinomyces?

normal flora of gingival crevices
female genital tract

24

Name some locations you can get actinomycosis?

cervicofacial - Dental trauma
pelvic - prolonged IUD
thoracic and abdominal - surgery
CNS - solitary abscesses

25

What is the appearance of actinomycosis abscesses?

sulfur granules present
appears like a molar tooth

26

What are the similarities of nocardia and actinomyces?

both filamentous branching gram + rods
infection requires trauma
slow growth
produce sulfur granules

27

What are the differences btwn nocardia and actinomyces?

actinomyces: anaerobe, commensal, acute branching

nocardia: acid fast, strict aerobe, environmental source, infects immunocompromised

28

Describe an infection with nocardia?

caseating granulomas - cavitary bronchopulmonary lesions