bacteriology of clostridia
gram positive spore forming obligate anaerobes
require low tissue oxygenation
What two diseases can C perfringens cause?
- food poisoning
2. gas gangrene
Differentiate the paralysis from tetanus and botulism
tetanus - spastic paralysis
botulism - flaccid paralysis
What is the treatment or tetanus and botulism?
antitoxin NOT antibiotics
what antibiotic is notorious for causing C diff overgrowth
What infection “ undulant fever and noncaseating granulomas”
Where is yersinia infection endemic to? what is the vector?
Describe the two types of infections yersinia pestis can cause?
- bubonic plague - fever, swollen LNs, DIC
2. pneumonic plague
Yersinia has a specific microscopic appearance - what is it
bipolar staining - safety pin
Yersinia enterocolitica causes what infection?
What is the bacteriology of yersinia
member of enterobacteriacae so gram - Rod
Bacteriology of tularemia
gram negative coccus
What is the reservoir of tularemia?
what are three different presentations of tularemia infection?
- ulceroglandular - tick bite
- pneumonia - aerosols - skinning rabbits
- typhoidal - ingestion of infected meat
bacteriology of anthrax
gram positive rod
Describe the three presentations of anthrax?
- cutaneous - black eschar
- pulmonary - mediastinal widening
- GI - vomiting and bloody diarrhea
Bacteriology of listeria
gram + rod
what special virulence factor does listeria have
actin jet motility - pokes through neighboring cells
What is a usual source of listeria infection?
soft cheeses, deli meats, unpasteurized milk
Who is listeria a particularly dangerous infection for?
pregnant women and neonates
What is the most common cause of meningitis in AIDs, cancer, transplant patients
AIDs - crypto
cancer, transplant - listeria
what is the bacteriology of actinomyces
gram positive branching rod
What is the reservoir for actinomyces?
normal flora of gingival crevices
female genital tract
Name some locations you can get actinomycosis?
cervicofacial - Dental trauma
pelvic - prolonged IUD
thoracic and abdominal - surgery
CNS - solitary abscesses
What is the appearance of actinomycosis abscesses?
sulfur granules present
appears like a molar tooth
What are the similarities of nocardia and actinomyces?
both filamentous branching gram + rods
infection requires trauma
produce sulfur granules
What are the differences btwn nocardia and actinomyces?
actinomyces: anaerobe, commensal, acute branching
nocardia: acid fast, strict aerobe, environmental source, infects immunocompromised
Describe an infection with nocardia?
caseating granulomas - cavitary bronchopulmonary lesions