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Flashcards in GI13 Deck (20):
1

What is Achalasia?

Failure of relaxation of lower esophageal sphincter (LES) due to loss of Myenteric (Auerbach's) plexus.

2

What do you see on a barium swallow in a patient with Achalasia?

"Birds beak"
Dilated esophagus with an area of distal stenosis

3

Achalasia is associated with an increased risk of what cancer?

Esophageal SCC

4

Secondary Achalasia is associated with what?

Chagas' disease

5

Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD).

-Presents as heartburn and regurgitation upon laying down
-May present with nocturnal cough, dyspnea
-Adult-onset asthma
-DECREASE in LES tone

6

Esophageal varices.

-PAINLESS bleeding
-Dilated submucosal veins in lower 1/3 of esophagus
-Secondary to Portal HTN

7

Esophagitis.

Associated with:
-Reflux
-Infection
-Chemical ingestion

8

Esophagitis:
-Candida

White pseudomembrane

9

Esophagitis:
-HSV-1

Punched-out ulcers

10

Esophagitis:
-CMV

Linear ulcers

11

Mallory-Weiss syndrome.

Mucosal lacerations at the GastroEsophageal junction d/t VOMITING

-leads to hematemesis
-Seen in Alcoholics and Bulimics

12

BoerHaave Syndrome.

Transmural esophageal rupture d/t VIOLENT retching.

13

Esophageal strictures.

Associated with lye ingestion and acid reflux

14

Plummer-Vinson syndrome.

Triad:
-Dysphagia (d/t esophageal webs)
-Glossitis
-Iron deficiency anemia

15

Barrett's esophagus.

Glandular metaplasia
-replacement of nonkeratinized (stratified) squamous epithelium with intestinal (nonciliated columnar) epithelium in the distal esophagus

16

What causes Barrett's esophagus?

Chronic GERD

17

What is Barrett's esophagus associated with?

-Esophagitis
-Esophageal ulcers
-Increased risk of esophageal Adenocarcinoma

18

What are the risk factors for Esophageal cancer?

"AABCDEFFGH"
Achalasia - SCC
Alcohol - Adeno
Barrett's - Adeno
Ciggys - Both
DIverticula - SCC
Esophageal web - SCC
Familial
Fat - Adeno
GERD - Adeno
Hot liquids - SCC

19

Where do you typically see SCC of the esophagus?

Upper 2/3

*Most common WORLD WIDE

20

Where do you typically see Adenocarcinoma of the esophagus?

Lower 1/3

*Most common in UNITED STATES