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Flashcards in GI21 Deck (12):
1

Hepatocellular Carcinoma/Hepatoma:
- General

Most common 1˚ malignant tumor of liver in adults

2

Hepatocellular Carcinoma/Hepatoma:
- increased risk associations

-Hepatitis B & C
-WIlson's disease
-Hemochromatosis
-a1-antitrypsin deficiency
-Alcoholic cirrhosis
-Carcinogens (i.e., Aflatoxins from Aspergillus)

3

Hepatocellular Carcinoma/Hepatoma:
- Findings

-Jaundice
-Tender hepatomegaly
-Ascites
-Polycythemia
-Hypoglycemia
-INcreased Prothrombin Time (PTT) d/t DEcrease in Vit. K dependent clotting factors
-INcreased a-fetoprotein

4

Hepatocellular Carcinoma/Hepatoma:
- May lead to

Budd-Chiari syndrome

5

Hepatocellular Carcinoma/Hepatoma:
- Metastasis (spread)

Hematogenous dissemination

6

Carvernous hemangioma.

-Common
-Benign
-30-50 y.o
-Biopsy CONTRAINDICATED (risk of hemorrhage)

7

Hepatic adenoma.

-Benign
-Oral contraceptives
-Steroid use
-May regress spontaneously

8

Angiosarcoma.

-Malignant tumor of Endothelial origin
-Exposure to - Arsenic or PVC

9

Nutmeg Liver.

-Backup of blood into liver
-Causes: Right-sided HF, Budd-Chiari syndrome
-Chronic: Centrilobular congestion and necrosis
-Cardiac cirrhosis

10

Budd-Chiari syndrome.

-Occlusion of IVC or hepatic veins
-Centrilobular congestion and necrosis
-Leads to congestive liver disease (hepatomegaly, ascites, abdominal pain, eventual liver failure)
-Absence of JVD
-Associated with: Hypercoagulable state, Polycythemia vera, Pregnancy, Hepatocellular carcinoma

11

a1-antitrypsin deficiency - Liver.

1-Misfolded gene product protein aggreates in hepatocellular ER
2-Cirrhosis w/ PAS-positive globules in liver

*Codominant trait

12

a1-antitrypsin deficiency - Lung.

1-Lack of functioning enzyme
2-DEcrease elastic tissue
3-Panacinar emphysema

*Codominant trait