Grape Growing, Viticulture & Terminology Flashcards Preview

WSET ® Level 2 Wine > Grape Growing, Viticulture & Terminology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Grape Growing, Viticulture & Terminology Deck (49)
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1
Q

The growing season begins for a vine in ______.

A

spring

2
Q

The growing season ends for a vine in ______.

A

autumn

3
Q

Why do vines grow grapes?

A

Vines grow grapes so animals that eat the fruit will spread the grapes’ seeds.

Animals that eat grapes include deer and birds.

4
Q

During which season are vines dormant?

A

Winter

5
Q

Are most wines in the world made with European or North American vine species?

What is the name of the vine species used?

A

Most are made using a European vine species named Vitis vinifera.

6
Q

Name some commonly found Vitis Vinifera varieties.

A
  • Sauvignon Blanc
  • Pinot Grigio
  • Riesling
  • Chardonnay
  • Syrah
  • Grenache
  • Merlot
  • Cabernet Sauvigon
7
Q

Name the 4 major parts of a grape.

A
  1. Pulp
  2. Skin
  3. Seeds
  4. Stems
8
Q

Which 3 parts of the grape produce tannins?

A
  1. Skins
  2. Seeds
  3. Stems
9
Q

What flavor do tannins produce?

A

Bitterness

10
Q

What is the pulp of a grape mostly made up of?

A

Water

11
Q

Where does the sugar in grape juice come from?:

  • Skins
  • Stems & Seeds
  • Pulp
A

Pulp

The pulp is also composed of acids and flavor compounds.

12
Q

What part of the grape do most red wines get their color from?

A

The skins of grapes

13
Q

How many years can a vine live?

A

If it’s in a healthy environment, a vine can live more than 50 years and upwards of 100 years.

14
Q

What are the 5 things a vine needs to remain alive and flourish?

A
  1. Sunlight
  2. Warmth
  3. Carbon dioxide
  4. Water
  5. Nutrients
15
Q

Describe photosynthesis.

A

A vine’s leaves take in CO2 gas from the air and its roots take up water and nutrients from the ground to produce sugar, or energy, for the vine to grow and ripen its grapes.

Photosynthesis cannot happen without sunlight.

16
Q

List a vine’s annual cycle.

A
  1. Flowering: spring
  2. Fruit set: early summer
  3. Véraison: summer
  4. Ripening time: summer/late summer
  5. Harvest: late summer/early autumn
  6. Dormancy: winter
17
Q

In which months does flowering happen in the northern and southern hemispheres?

A
  • Northern hemisphere: May/June
  • Southern hemisphere: November/December
18
Q

How are the flowers of grape vines pollinated?

A

Vine’s flowers are pollinated by the wind.

19
Q

For flowers to turn into grapes, does each flower need to be pollinated or can just one flower in the cluster be pollinated?

A

Each flower must be pollinated in order to change into a grape.

20
Q

When does fruit set happen?

Describe what happens during fruit set.

A
  • Fruit set happens after pollination
  • Once pollinated a flower develops seeds and starts to grow; it looks like a tiny green berry
  • These berries will develop and turn into grapes
21
Q

What is véraison and when does it occur?

A

Véraison is the onset of ripening and when the grapes change color.

Red varieties turn from green to purple or black, and sugars increase while acidity levels decrease.

Véraison occurs mid-summer.

22
Q

Before ripening, grapes are high in _____ and low in _____.

A

Before ripening, grapes are high in acid and low in sugar.

23
Q

As grapes ripen, acidity levels _____ and sugar levels _____.

A

As grapes ripen, acidity levels decrease and sugar levels increase.

It is during this ripening period that a grape’s aromatics will develop as well.

24
Q

What chemical compound develops in black grapes during ripening?

A

Tannins

Tannins are chemical compounds that augment the mouthfeel of a wine, adding texture and astringency (tannins dry out your mouth).

Tannins primarily come from the skins of grapes, but they also can come from the seeds and stems.

25
Q

If grapes remain on the vine after the time they’re usually harvested, what happens to them?

A

The grapes will develop “extra-ripeness”, meaning that the levels of both aromas and sugars will magnify and concentrate.

26
Q

What happens to grapes if they are left to raisinate on the vine?

A
  • Water in the grapes evaporates thereby concentrating acids and sugars;
  • Aromas in the grape change from ripe/fresh to dried/dimpled.

Raisinated grapes are most often used to make sweet wines, not dry wines.

27
Q

List 3 ways to concentrate grape sugars to make sweet wine.

A
  1. Extra-ripeness
  2. Botrytis
  3. Frozen grapes
28
Q

Botrytis/noble rot:

  • what is it?
  • what does it do to the grapes?
  • what are the optimal conditions for it to form?
A

What it is:

Botrytis is a fungus that grows on the outside of grapes that can cause noble rot.

What it does:

The fungus punctures the grape skins which allows the water inside the grape to evaporate, thereby concentrating sugars, flavors, and acids.

Conditions:

In order for noble rot to form, the Botrytis fungus requires misty mornings or humid conditions followed by warm, dry afternoons (the dry afternoons slow the growth of Botrytis and prevent it from completely rotting the grapes).

29
Q

What style of wine is usually made with grapes affected by Botrytis:

  • sparkling wine
  • table wine
  • dessert wine
A

Dessert wine

30
Q

Botrytis-affected grapes are _____ used to make sweet wines.

  • always
  • almost always
  • never
A

Almost always

31
Q

Give a classic example of a wine whose grapes are affected by Botrytis.

A
  • Sauternes (Bordeaux, France)
  • Aszú (Tokaj, Hungary)
32
Q

What happens to healthy grapes when they are left on the vine to freeze and they’re picked when frozen?

A

The water inside the grapes freezes.

The grapes are quickly taken to the winery and pressed where the frozen water and skins are easily separated from the remaining sugary liquid, which is intensely high in acids, flavor, and sugar.

This sugary liquid is fermented to make the sweet wine Icewine/Eiswein.

33
Q

What is the difference between training and pruning?

A

Training

  • How the vine is supported and arranged to optimize sunlight and productivity

Pruning

  • Removal of plant parts to control size and form of the vine, optimize production potential, and achieve balance between vegetative growth (the leaves) and fruit
34
Q

How are most vines trained?

A

On trellises

35
Q

During which season are vines usually pruned?

Why do farmers prune their vines?

A

Vines are usually pruned in the winter when they’re dormant.

Farmers prune their vines to:

  • Help maintain their shape
  • Balance fruit production and shoot growth
36
Q

Name 3 ways farmers can irrigate their vines.

A
  1. Drip irrigation
  2. Flood irrigation
  3. Sprinklers
37
Q

What are some of the things that can cause problems in vineyards?

A
  • Insects
  • Fungi
  • Weeds
  • Birds
  • Deer
38
Q

Netting protects vines from these 2 things:

A
  1. Birds and other pests that eat the berries
  2. Hail that can damage the berries and vine
39
Q

Pesticides kill _____.

Fungicides kill _____.

Herbicides kill _____.

A

Pesticides kill insects

Fungicides kill fungi

Herbicides kill weeds

40
Q

What exactly is yield?

A

Yield is the amount of grapes produced in an acre (or hectare).

  • An average yield is 40-60 hectoliters per hectare
41
Q

What happens to grape flavors if a vineyard’s yields are too high?

And what if the yields are too low?

A

Yield that’s too high:

  • Grapes could potentially have low sugar and/or loss of flavor (due to overproduction)

Yield that’s too low:

  • Insufficient amount of grapes to make enough wine for the market
42
Q

Name 2 ways how grapes are harvested.

A
  1. By hand
  2. Machine
43
Q

Which is machine harvesting best used on:

  • flat land
  • steep slopes
A

Flat land

It’s nearly impossible to use machine harvesters on slopes.

44
Q

What attributes will grapes have if they’re harvested early?

A
  • Higher acidity
  • Lower sugar
  • Under-developed/under-ripe fruit flavors
  • More grassy and herbaceous flavors
45
Q

What attributes will grapes have if they’re harvested later than normal?

A
  • Lower acidity
  • Higher sugar
  • Riper fruit flavors
46
Q

Besides the producer, appellation, and vintage, what are some common labeling terms found on wine bottles?

A
  • Old Vine/Vieilles Vignes
  • Late Harvest/Vendanges Tardives
  • Icewine/Eiswein
  • Botrytis
47
Q

What does the term Old Vine or Vieilles Vignes indicate on a bottle of wine?

A

That the vines are older and, assumingly, grow grapes that express higher flavor concentration.

To achieve the distinction of Old Vine/Vieilles Vignes, a vine usually has to be at least 35 years old but there is no legally defined age minimum.

48
Q

If you have two bottles with the same vintage but they’re from different hemispheres, which wine will be older: the one from the northern hemisphere or the one from the southern hemisphere?

A

The one from the southern hemisphere.

The southern hemisphere harvests their grapes about 6 months before the northern hemisphere does, so the wine techincally is older than the one from the northern hemisphere.

49
Q

True or False:

Wines labeled Late Harvest are always sweet.

A

False

Late Harvest wines can be dry, off-dry, medium-sweet or sweet.

They are fuller in body and more concentrated in sugars and flavors than wines made from grapes harvested at the regular time.