The growing season begins for a vine in ___.
The growing season ends for a vine in ___.
Why do vines grow grapes?
Vines grow grapes so animals that eat the fruit will spread the grapes' seeds.
Animals that eat grapes include deer and birds.
During which season are vines dormant?
Are most wines in the world made with European or North American vine species?
What is the name of the vine species used?
Most are made using a European vine species named Vitis vinifera.
Name some commonly found Vitis Vinifera varieties.
- Sauvignon Blanc
- Pinot Grigio
- Cabernet Sauvigon
Name the 4 major parts of a grape.
Which 3 parts of the grape produce tannins?
What flavor do tannins produce?
What is the pulp of a grape mostly made up of?
Where does the sugar in grape juice come from?:
- Stems & Seeds
The pulp is also composed of acids and flavor compounds.
What part of the grape do most red wines get their color from?
The skins of grapes
How many years can a vine live?
If it's in a healthy environment, a vine can live more than 50 years and upwards of 100 years.
What are the 5 things a vine needs to remain alive and flourish?
- Carbon dioxide
A vine's leaves take in CO2 gas from the air and its roots take up water and nutrients from the ground to produce sugar, or energy, for the vine to grow and ripen its grapes.
Photosynthesis cannot happen without sunlight.
List a vine's annual cycle.
Fruit set: early summer
Ripening time: summer/late summer
Harvest: late summer/early autumn
When does flowering happen?
- Northern hemisphere: May/June
- Southern hemisphere: November/December
How are the flowers of grape vines pollinated?
Vine's flowers are pollinated by the wind.
For flowers to turn into grapes, does each flower need to be pollinated or can just one flower in the cluster be pollinated?
Each flower must be pollinated in order to change into a grape.
When does fruit set happen?
Describe what happens during fruit set.
- Fruit set happens after pollination
Once pollinated a flower develops seeds and starts to grow; it looks like a tiny green berry
- These berries will develop and turn into grapes
What is véraison and when does it occur?
Véraison occurs mid-summer.
Véraison is the onset of ripening and when the grapes change color.
Red varieties turn from green to purple or black, and sugars increase while acidity levels decrease.
Before ripening, grapes are high in ___ and low in ___.
Before ripening, grapes are high in acid and low in sugar.
As grapes ripen, acidity levels ___ and sugar levels ___.
As grapes ripen, acidity levels decrease and sugar levels increase.
It is during this ripening period that a grape's aromatics will develop as well.
What chemical compound develops in black grapes during ripening?
Tannins are chemical compounds that augment the mouthfeel of a wine, adding texture and astringency (tannins dry out your mouth).
Tannins primarily come from the skins of grapes, but they also can come from the seeds and stems.
If grapes remain on the vine after the time they're usually harvested, what happens to them?
The grapes will develop "extra-ripeness", meaning that the levels of both aromas and sugars will magnify and concentrate.
What happens to grapes if they are left to raisinate on the vine?
Water in the grapes evaporates thereby concentrating acids and sugars;
Aromas in the grape change from ripe/fresh to dried/dimpled.
Raisinated grapes are most often used to make sweet wines, not dry wines.
List 3 ways to concentrate grape sugars to make sweet wine.
- Frozen grapes
- what is it?
- what does it do to the grapes?
- what are the optimal conditions for it to form?
What it is:
Botrytis is a fungus that grows on the outside of grapes that can cause noble rot.
What it does:
The fungus punctures the grape skins which allows the water inside the grape to evaporate, thereby concentrating sugars, flavors, and acids.
In order for noble rot to form, the Botrytis fungus requires misty mornings or humid conditions followed by warm, dry afternoons (the dry afternoons slow the growth of Botrytis and prevent it from completely rotting the grapes).
What style of wine is usually made with grapes affected by Botrytis:
- sparkling wine
- table wine
- dessert wine
Botrytis-affected grapes are ___ used to make sweet wines.
- almost always