Winemaking: White, Red, Rosé & Sweet Wines Flashcards Preview

WSET ® Level 2 Wine > Winemaking: White, Red, Rosé & Sweet Wines > Flashcards

Flashcards in Winemaking: White, Red, Rosé & Sweet Wines Deck (63)
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1
Q

Define crushing.

A

Breaking open grape skins so they release their juice.

2
Q

Define pressing.

A

When crushed grapes are pressed to extract as much juice as possible. This is done in a machine called a Press.

3
Q

What is alcoholic fermentation?

A

The method used to create alcohol in wine.

4
Q

What microorganism carries out alcoholic fermentation in wine?

A

Yeasts

5
Q

What do yeasts eat during alcoholic fermentation?

A

Sugars

6
Q

What are the byproducts of alcoholic fermentation?

A
  1. Alcohol
  2. Carbon dioxide gas (CO2)
  3. Heat
7
Q

Alcoholic fermentation is an exothermic reaction.

What does that mean?

A

Alcoholic fermentation creates and releases heat.

8
Q

When does alcoholic fermentation stop?

A

When yeasts have eaten all the sugar.

The result is a dry wine (meaning, no residual sugar remaining).

9
Q

What is the typical range of alcohol in a dry wine?

A

11.5% - 16% abv

10
Q

What is the difference between storage and maturation?

A

Storage is for wines that are made for early consumption. Meaning, once alcoholic fermentation is complete, the new wine is left to settle for a short while (usually just a few months) prior to bottling.

Maturation is when wines are stored longer than a few months to help develop flavor and body prior to release. Maturation most often happens in barrel (but sometimes in bottle).

11
Q

What color grapes can be used to make white wine?

A

White grapes are predominantly used to make white wine, although there are some white wines made from red/black grapes (e.g. Blanc de Noirs sparkling wine).

When making a white wine from black grapes, care must be taken to press the grapes gently so as not to extract any color from the skins.

12
Q

List the order of processes when making white wine.

A
  1. Crushing
  2. Pressing
  3. Alcoholic fermentation
  4. Storage or maturing
  5. Packaging
13
Q

When are grapes for white wines crushed and pressed?

A

Before fermentation (ideally, shortly after they’re harvested and brought to the winery).

14
Q

What is the optimum fermentation temperature for white wine?

A

Between 12°C - 22°C (54°F - 72°F)

Rosé wines are typically fermented at similar temperatures to white wines.

15
Q

What effect does a lower fermentation temperature have on a white wine?

A

Lower fermentation temperatures bring about fruitier aromas.

16
Q

Name two techniques for adjusting grape must that are commonly practiced in wineries that can be used on white, red, and rosé wines.

A
  1. Adding sugar to increase alcohol
  2. Adding acid (acidification)
17
Q

What is the most common must adjustment made to white grapes from warm/hot climates, and why?

A

Acidification

Warm climate grapes can have lower levels of natural acidity.

18
Q

How does adding sugar to the must before or during fermentation change the final wine?

A

Adding sugar before or during fermentation increases the alcohol level in a wine.

You don’t need to know this for the exam, but beet and cane sugar are the most common forms of sugar used.

19
Q

What is residual sugar?

A

Sugar that remains in a wine after fermentation.

20
Q

What does “off-dry” mean?

A

Off-dry is when a wine’s residual sugar is just-perceptible.

21
Q

Name some ways sweet wines hold on to their residual sugar.

A
  1. Sugars so concentrated the yeasts can’t possibly eat it all (e.g. frozen, extra-ripe or Botrytis-affected grapes)
    • e.g. Hungarian Aszú
  2. Removing yeast cells from fermenting juice
    • e.g. White Zinfandel
  3. Killing yeast cells by adding alcohol/fortification
    • e.g. Port
22
Q

What are 2 additions a winemaker can use to sweeten up a dry wine?

Name 1 other way winemakers can make a wine sweet.

A
  1. Unfermented grape juice
  2. Concentrated grape juice

Other way: blend the dry wine with a sweet wine

23
Q

What kinds of vessels are commonly used to ferment white wines?

A
  • Oak barrels
  • Inert vessels
    • Stainless steel
    • Concrete
24
Q

What are the advantages of fermenting white wines in stainless steel?

A
  • Stainless steel is inert and doesn’t add flavor to wine (helps maintain varietal character);
  • Stainless steel can be made airtight, preventing oxygen from coming into contact with the wine and changing its flavors.
25
Q

What are 2 advantages of fermenting wine in oak barrels?

A
  1. Barrels add woody and toasty flavors straight into the wine;
  2. Barrels encourage flavor development due to the presence of oxygen.
26
Q

What flavors will aging in new oak add to white wines?

A
  • Vanilla
  • Toast
  • Smoke
  • Coconut
  • Baking spice (clove, dill, nutmeg, anise)
  • Sweet spice (molasses, brown sugar, butterscotch)
27
Q

What determines how much flavor an oak barrel adds to a wine?

A
  1. How the barrel was made (what was its level of toasting?)
  2. Age of barrel (if it’s new, it’ll impart more wood flavor than a used one)
  3. Size of barrel (smaller ones encourage more oxygen transfer, helping flavors evolve sooner)
28
Q

Why are the effects of oak felt more so in small barrels vs. large barrels?

A

Because in smaller barrels there is a greater amount of wine surface area touching the oak.

29
Q

Barrels that have never been used before are referred to as _____.

Barrels have have been used about 3 times or more are referred to as _____.

A

Never used: new oak

Used a few times: old or neutral oak

30
Q

What less-costly methods may be substituted for oak barrels but still add desirable oak flavors to value-priced white wines?

A

The use of oak staves or oak chips.

The oak flavors will be less well integrated into the final wine as oak barrels do more than just add oak flavors, which is why this cheaper method is never used for premium white wines.

31
Q

What are lees?

A

Lees are dead yeast cells that fall to the bottom of a vessel after fermentation.

32
Q

What are the effects of stirring up the lees or keeping a wine on its lees?

A
  • Lees add a creamy, round texture and richer body
  • Lees add bread-like flavors (bread dough, freshly baked bread)
33
Q

Why don’t aromatic white grape varieties typically go through lees aging or lees stirring?

A

Because the bread-like flavors from the lees would impede the purity of fruit flavors desired in aromatic varieties.

34
Q

What is malolactic conversion?

A

Malolactic conversion is the transformation of tarter malic acid (the same acid in an under-ripe apple) into softer lactic acid (the same acid in yogurt).

35
Q

What causes/carries out malolactic conversion:

  • bacteria
  • yeast
  • fungus
A

Bacteria

36
Q

When does malolactic conversion occur?

A

After alcoholic fermentation has completed.

37
Q

What flavors do malolactic conversion impart on wine?

A

Buttery flavors, including anything from freshly churned butter to movie theater popcorn butter.

38
Q

Why would a winemaker block malolactic conversion on an aromatic grape varietal?

A

Because the buttery aromas and flavors would obstruct the pure fruit aromatics and flavors of the aromatic grape varietals.

39
Q

Name 2 white grape varieties that are most likely to undergo malolactic conversion.

Name 2 white grape varieties that are least likely to undergo malolactic conversion.

A

Most likely: Chardonnay, Viognier

Least likely: Riesling, Gewurztraminer

40
Q

Do white wines get lighter in color or darker in color as they age?

A

Darker in color. White wines turn gold and amber as they age.

Wine is made out of grapes, which are a fruit - and most fruits will turn brown if you leave them exposed to oxygen too long (e.g. leaving sliced apple or avocado uncovered on your kitchen counter).

41
Q

What sorts of flavors can a white wine in barrel develop when it’s exposed to oxygen?

A
  • Caramel
  • Dried fruit
  • Nuts (almonds, hazelnuts, walnuts)
42
Q

What are some things a white wine has to have that would allow it to mature in bottle?

A
  • Higher acidity levels
  • High levels of residual sugar
  • Concentration of flavors that can withstand and evolve with time in barrel
43
Q

Give 2 reasons why a winemaker would blend a wine.

A
  • Maintain consistency and style of a particular wine
  • Create complexity
44
Q

List the order of processing for making red wines.

A
  1. Crushing
  2. Alcoholic fermentation
  3. Draining
  4. Pressing
  5. Storage or maturation
  6. Packaging
45
Q

What is the cap?

A

The cap is a thick layer of grape skins that rises to the surface during fermentation and floats on top of the fermenting must.

46
Q

Why is the cap mixed with the fermenting grape juice?

A

To ensure that all possible color and tannins are being extracted from the grapes.

47
Q

2 ways to mix the cap and fermenting must are:

A
  1. Punching down
  2. Pumping over
48
Q

Describe punching down.

A

Punching down is when the cap is submerged and stirred back into the fermenting must, agitating the grape skins so as to extract as much color and tannin as possible.

Punch down tools have holes in the bottom of them so that the grapes and air can flow through, making punching down easier.

49
Q

Describe pumping over.

A

Pumping over is when a hose is connected to the bottom of a fermentation vessel which sucks fermenting juice from the bottom of the vessel and sprays it back out over the top of the cap.

Pumping over is a more gentle way of extracting color and tannin than punching down.

50
Q

What are the 2 most common ways of making rosé?

A
  1. Short maceration
  2. Blending
51
Q

The blending of red and white wine to make rosé is permitted in most countries except:

A

Parts of the European Union.

Fun Fact: one place in Europe where blending IS permitted to make rosé is Champagne.

52
Q

How do rosé wines get their color from short maceration?

A

By the red skins being in contact with the juice for a few hours.

The pink juice is drained from the skins and is fermented dry using white wine temperatures.

53
Q

When making rosé via short maceration, fermentation starts off like making a _____ wine and finishes like a _____ wine.

A

Starts like red wine, finishes like white wine.

54
Q

Do rosé wines undergo malolactic conversion?

A

Malolactic conversion is avoided for most rosé production as the crisp, fresh acidity of these wines is a defining feature of the rosé style.

55
Q

Pressing grapes occurs _____ fermentation for white wines and _____ fermentation for red wines.

A

Pressing occurs before fermentation for whites, after fermentation for reds.

56
Q

The lower the sugar in the grapes at harvest, the _____ the final alcohol.

The higher the sugar in grapes at harvest, the _____ the final alcohol.

A

The lower the sugar, the lower the alcohol

  • think cool climate Muscadet

The higher the sugar, the higher the alcohol

  • think warm climate Shiraz
57
Q

What are the major differences between red wine making and white wine making?

A
  1. White wines are usually pressed before fermentation while red wines are pressed after fermentation;
  2. White wines are direct pressed while red wines spend an extended period of time in contact with their skins before and during fermentation, extracting tannin and color from the lengthy skin contact;
  3. Reds always go through malolactic conversion and for whites it’s really up to the winemaker to decide whether the white goes through MLF.
58
Q

What is the typical temperature range for red wine fermentation?

What happens to the yeasts if fermentation temps get too high?

A

Between 20°C - 32°C (68°F - 90°F).

If fermentation temps go over 90ºF there’s a risk the yeasts will die.

59
Q

Which is usually fermented at warmer temperatures:

  • red wine
  • white wine
  • rosé wine
A

Red wine

The heat of alcoholic fermentation helps extract color and tannins from the skins.

60
Q

Why are red wines fermented at higher temperatures than white wines?

A

The higher temperatures allow for the extraction of color, flavor, and tannin which are the hallmarks of red wines.

61
Q

When are grapes for red wines pressed?

A

After fermentation has completed.

62
Q

Malolactic conversion is:

  • sometimes
  • always
  • never

used in the production of red wines.

A

Always

For red wine production malolactic conversion is standard practice rather than a stylistic choice.

63
Q

What are some packaging options for winemakers?

A
  • Glass bottles
  • Bag-in-box (BIB)
  • Tetra Paks
  • Plastic bottles