Flashcards in Grapes & Varieties Deck (141):
What genus do wine grapes belong to?
What species do wine grapes belong to?
Where did vitus vinifera develop?
What is the second most important grape species?
Why is vitus lambrusca important today?
Where and when was v. lambrusca discovered?
North America colonial period
The flavor associated with v. lambrusca is described as
What is phylloxera?
An aphid like insect that attacks vines
When did phylloxera ravage European vineyards?
What part of the vine is grafted onto the phylloxera resistant rootstock or trunk?
Name two grapevine species
Vitus vinifera & Vitus Lambrusca
A scientific group of plants or animals that are genetically similar, have broad characteristics in common and can reproduce via sexual reproduction.
What do you call a subspecies?
Define variety with regard to grapes.
It is an identifiable group of vines of the same species that share many characteristics of appearance, flavor and growth.
Grapes that are slightly different from their parent but are of the same variety.
What could make a clone slightly different than it's parent?
Define a mutation and give an example.
A mutation is derived from a vine that has developed different characteristics from its parents or fellow clones through imperfect reproduction of cells as it grow. An example would be Pinot Gris and Pinot Blanc are mutants of Pinot Noir.
Define and cross and give an example.
A cross is the offspring between two different subspecies, such as Sauvignon Blanc and Cab. Franc creating Cabernet Sauvignon.
What do you call the result of sex. repro between two closely related but different species?
Why are hybrids not typically used?
Give an example of a hybrid grape that is used sometimes.
List 5 international varietals.
Cabernet Sauvignon, Sauvignon Blanc, Chardonnay, Merlot, Pinot Noir
List 5 indigenous varietals.
Nebbiolo, Tempranillo, Semillon, Albarino, Sangeovese
Other terms for indigenous grapes are:
Native, traditional and antochthonous (aw-tock-toe-nous)
Name a popular and easy to grow white grape.
Chardonnay is thought to be indigenous to where?
Describe "California style chardonnay".
Lower acid and fuller body.
How does chardonnay benefit from the interaction of wood?
What are the top producing countries of chardonnay?
France, US, Australia, Germany, Italy
What are the characteristic aromas of cool climate chardonnay?
Green apple, melon
What are the characteristic aromas of warm climate chardonnay?
Chardonnay's aciditiy is what?
Medium to high.
Chardonnay's alcohol is what?
Medium to high.
What are the characteristic aromas of an oaked chardonnay?
Vanilla, butterscotch, caramel, toast
What white grape is among the most versitile?
How long can sweet/dessert chenin blancs store in cellar?
Up to decades.
What name does chenin blanc go by in South Africa?
Chenin Blanc represents what percentage of planting in South Africa?
Where else does Chenin Blanc have significant plantings?
Loire Valley, Central Valley of California
What are the characteristic aromas of Chenin Blanc?
green apple, melon, honey, citrus blossoms, mineral
What are the top prouducing countries of Chenin Blanc?
France, US, South Africa
What are some well known AOC examples of Chenin Blanc?
Vouvray, Savennieres, Saumur
Chenin Blanc alcohol is what?
medium to high
Chenin Blanc acid is what?
medium plus to high
What ancient white grape variety can produce a wide range of sweet wines?
Name 3 other mutations/relations of muscat?
Muscat Blanc a Petits Grains, Muscat of Alexandria and Muscat Ottonel.
In what climate does muscat perform best:
Warm to hot.
The best known muscat based wine is called what and from where?
Moscato d'Asti from Northern Italy
What are the top producing countries for muscat?
France, Italy, Chile, Australia
What are the characteristic aromas of Muscat?
honey, musk, orange blossom, floral, apricots
The acid level of muscat is what?
low to medium
The alcohol level of muscat is what?
medium to high
What white grape variety has a dusty or light pink skin?
Pinot Grigio/Pinot Gris
Pinot Gris is a mutation of what grape?
Cool climate Pinot Gris is produced where?
Oregon, Alsace & Germany
What is the style profile of cool climate Pinot Gris?
Medium plus acidity, medium to full body, apple, pear or almond like aromas.
What are the the German names for Pinot Gris?
Rulander or Graubugnder
In what areas would you find a higher alcohol and less acidic Pinot Grigio?
California & Australia due to warmer climates
What are the characteristic aromas of Pinot Grigio/Pinot Gris?
Apple, melon, lemon, peach, minerals
What is the acidity of Pinot Grigio/Pinot Gris?
Low to medium
What is the alcohol of Pinot Grigio/Pinot Gris?
Well known examples of Pinot Grigio/Pinot Gris are from
Northeastern Italy, Alsace, Oregon
The top producing countries for Pinot Grigio/Pinot Gris are
Italy, France, US, France, Australia
What white grape has an intensly floral aroma and petrol scent?
The alcohol level in a Riesling can go as low as
7 - 8%
What is the acid level in a Riesling?
High to very high
What is the american grape that is a synonym for Riesling?
What are the top producing countries for Riesling?
France, Germany, US, Australia
Well known examples of Riesling are from
Mosel, Rheingau, Rheinhessen and Pfaltz in Germany, Alsace, Clare & Eden Valleys in Australia, Finger Lakes in NY, and Washington State
What is the alcohol level in a Riesling?
low to very high
What are the characteristic aromas of Riesling?
Peach, nectarine, honeysuckle, apricot, petrol and baking spices (well aged)
Oak aged Sauvignon Blanc is known as
Sauvignon Blancs best know growing area is
Sweet dessert wines from the Bordeaux area, including Sauternes, are from what white grape?
Sauvignon Blanc is frequently blended with what grape to balance acid in Bordeaux?
Well know examples of Sauvignon Blanc are from
New Zealand, Sancerre, Pouilly-Fume, white Bordeaux & Fume Blanc
The top producing countries of Sauvignon Blanc are
New Zealand, France, US, Chile & South Africa
The acid level of Sauvignon Blanc is
Medium plus to high.
The alcohol level of Sauvignon Blanc is
The characteristic aromas of a cold climate Sauvignon Blanc are
Grass, hay, grapefruit
The characteristic aromas of a warm climate Sauvignon Blanc are
The characteristic aroma of a Loire Valley Sauvignon Blanc is
The characteristic aromas of an oak aged Sauvignon Blanc is
The characteristic aromas of a New Zealand Sauvignon Blanc is
What white grape, due to its low natural acidity, is thought of as a blending partner?
A Chardonny/Semillon blend can be found where?
What white grape has a distinct waxy or oily character?
What region in Australia is known for producing 100% Semillon?
Viognier is typically found where in France?
What grape has the Virginia Wine Board declared as their state grape?
The characteristic profile of Viognier is
Rich, full bodied, viscous
The characteristic aromas of Viognier are
peach, flowers, tangerine
What other names does Pinot Blanc go by in Italy, Germany & Austria?
Pinot Bianco in Italy, Weissburgunder in Germany and Austria
What grape has the aromas of flowers, spice, lychee & rose?
Where is Gewurtztraminer most prominent today?
Name a neutral white grape also used in balsamic vinegar?
What is the grape name for Trebbiano in France?
What white grape is also used for the production of brandy & cognac in France?
What is the white grape from Hungary?
Name 4 indigenous white Italian grapes
Cortese, Vermintino, Glera, Verdicchio
Name 4 indigenous white grapes from Spain.
Albarino, Palamino, Xarel-lo, Pedro Ximenez
Name a white grape indigenous to Switzerland.
Name a white grape indigenous to Argentina
Name a white grape indigenous to Austria.
Name two white grapes significant in Germany
Muller Thurgau, Silvaner
Name white grapes significant in Portugal.
Alvarinho, Arinto, Fernao Pires, Laoureiro
Name white grapes significant in Greece.
Assyrtiko, Moschofilero, Rhoditis
Name secondary white grapes significant in France.
Marsanne, Rousanne, Aligote
What is the best known red blending partner to Cab. Sauv and Merlot in Bordeaux?
Well known examples of Cabernet Franc are from
Bordeaux, Loire Valley, northeast Italy, New York State, California
The top producing countries of Cabernet Franc are
France, US, Italy
The characteristic aromas of a warm climate Cabernet Franc are
The characteristic aromas of a cool climate Cabernet Franc are
Strawberry, cranberry, tobacco, mushroom, bell pepper
The tannin level found in a Cabernet Franc is
light to medium
The acid level found in Cabernet Franc is
medium to high
The alcohol level found in Cabernet Franc is
What is the world's most widely grown red grape?
What is the red grape known for it's consistency, reliability, depth of flavor and ability to develop complex flavors over a long aging period?
The tannin levels in a Cabernet Sauvignon are
Cabernet Sauvignon is often blended with what grape in Australia?
The acid level found in Cabernet Sauvignon is
medium to high
The alcohol level found in Cabernet Sauvignon is
The top producing countries of Cabernet Sauvignon are
France, US, Australia, Chile
Well know examples of Cabernet Sauvignon are from
Bordeaux, Napa Valley
The characteristic aromas of a cool climate Cabernet Sauvignon are
Black current, black cherry, eucalyptus, bell pepper, mint
The characteristic aromas of a new oak aged Cabernet Sauvignon are
dark chocolate, cedar, vanilla, tobacco
The characteristic aromas of a well aged Cabernet Sauvignon are
coffee caramel, cigar box
Grenache is added to Syrah & Mourvedre to add
color, acidity and complexity
In what climate does Grenache thrive?
Hot & dry
Where did Grenache originate?
Spain where it is known as Garnacha
Grenache is known as what in Italy?
In what part of Italy would you find Grenache grown?
What red grape oxidizes quickly and picks up a salmon or orange tinge?
What red grape can take on a noticibly rusticity in the wine's aroma or bouquet?
Old vine Grenache is highly prized for it's
concentration of flavor
Well known examples of Grenache are from
Southern Rhone, Priorat, Rioja, Navarra, Australia
The top producing countries of Grenache are
The characteristic aromas of Grenache are
Strawberry, cranberry, sour cherry, flowers, black pepper
The acidity of Grenache is
low to medium
The tannin in Grenache is
low to medium