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CSW Wine Study > Grapes & Varieties > Flashcards

Flashcards in Grapes & Varieties Deck (141):
1

What genus do wine grapes belong to?

vitus

2

What species do wine grapes belong to?

Vitus vinifera

3

Where did vitus vinifera develop?

Caucasus mountains

4

What is the second most important grape species?

Vitus lambrusca

5

Why is vitus lambrusca important today?

Phylloxera resistant

6

Where and when was v. lambrusca discovered?

North America colonial period

7

The flavor associated with v. lambrusca is described as

Foxy

8

What is phylloxera?

An aphid like insect that attacks vines

9

When did phylloxera ravage European vineyards?

19th century

10

What part of the vine is grafted onto the phylloxera resistant rootstock or trunk?

Scion

11

Name two grapevine species

Vitus vinifera & Vitus Lambrusca

12

Define species.

A scientific group of plants or animals that are genetically similar, have broad characteristics in common and can reproduce via sexual reproduction.

13

What do you call a subspecies?

Variety

14

Define variety with regard to grapes.

It is an identifiable group of vines of the same species that share many characteristics of appearance, flavor and growth.

15

Define clones.

Grapes that are slightly different from their parent but are of the same variety.

16

What could make a clone slightly different than it's parent?

Growing conditions.

17

Define a mutation and give an example.

A mutation is derived from a vine that has developed different characteristics from its parents or fellow clones through imperfect reproduction of cells as it grow. An example would be Pinot Gris and Pinot Blanc are mutants of Pinot Noir.

18

Define and cross and give an example.

A cross is the offspring between two different subspecies, such as Sauvignon Blanc and Cab. Franc creating Cabernet Sauvignon.

19

What do you call the result of sex. repro between two closely related but different species?

A hybrid.

20

Why are hybrids not typically used?

High acid.

21

Give an example of a hybrid grape that is used sometimes.

Seyval Blanc

22

List 5 international varietals.

Cabernet Sauvignon, Sauvignon Blanc, Chardonnay, Merlot, Pinot Noir

23

List 5 indigenous varietals.

Nebbiolo, Tempranillo, Semillon, Albarino, Sangeovese

24

Other terms for indigenous grapes are:

Native, traditional and antochthonous (aw-tock-toe-nous)

25

Name a popular and easy to grow white grape.

Chardonnay

26

Chardonnay is thought to be indigenous to where?

Burgundy

27

Describe "California style chardonnay".

Lower acid and fuller body.

28

How does chardonnay benefit from the interaction of wood?

Softens it.

29

What are the top producing countries of chardonnay?

France, US, Australia, Germany, Italy

30

What are the characteristic aromas of cool climate chardonnay?

Green apple, melon

31

What are the characteristic aromas of warm climate chardonnay?

Tropical fruits.

32

Chardonnay's aciditiy is what?

Medium to high.

33

Chardonnay's alcohol is what?

Medium to high.

34

What are the characteristic aromas of an oaked chardonnay?

Vanilla, butterscotch, caramel, toast

35

What white grape is among the most versitile?

Chenin Blanc

36

How long can sweet/dessert chenin blancs store in cellar?

Up to decades.

37

What name does chenin blanc go by in South Africa?

Steen

38

Chenin Blanc represents what percentage of planting in South Africa?

20%

39

Where else does Chenin Blanc have significant plantings?

Loire Valley, Central Valley of California

40

What are the characteristic aromas of Chenin Blanc?

green apple, melon, honey, citrus blossoms, mineral

41

What are the top prouducing countries of Chenin Blanc?

France, US, South Africa

42

What are some well known AOC examples of Chenin Blanc?

Vouvray, Savennieres, Saumur

43

Chenin Blanc alcohol is what?

medium to high

44

Chenin Blanc acid is what?

medium plus to high

45

What ancient white grape variety can produce a wide range of sweet wines?

Muscat

46

Name 3 other mutations/relations of muscat?

Muscat Blanc a Petits Grains, Muscat of Alexandria and Muscat Ottonel.

47

In what climate does muscat perform best:

Warm to hot.

48

The best known muscat based wine is called what and from where?

Moscato d'Asti from Northern Italy

49

What are the top producing countries for muscat?

France, Italy, Chile, Australia

50

What are the characteristic aromas of Muscat?

honey, musk, orange blossom, floral, apricots

51

The acid level of muscat is what?

low to medium

52

The alcohol level of muscat is what?

medium to high

53

What white grape variety has a dusty or light pink skin?

Pinot Grigio/Pinot Gris

54

Pinot Gris is a mutation of what grape?

Pinot Noir

55

Cool climate Pinot Gris is produced where?

Oregon, Alsace & Germany

56

What is the style profile of cool climate Pinot Gris?

Medium plus acidity, medium to full body, apple, pear or almond like aromas.

57

What are the the German names for Pinot Gris?

Rulander or Graubugnder

58

In what areas would you find a higher alcohol and less acidic Pinot Grigio?

California & Australia due to warmer climates

59

What are the characteristic aromas of Pinot Grigio/Pinot Gris?

Apple, melon, lemon, peach, minerals

60

What is the acidity of Pinot Grigio/Pinot Gris?

Low to medium

61

What is the alcohol of Pinot Grigio/Pinot Gris?

Medium

62

Well known examples of Pinot Grigio/Pinot Gris are from

Northeastern Italy, Alsace, Oregon

63

The top producing countries for Pinot Grigio/Pinot Gris are

Italy, France, US, France, Australia

64

What white grape has an intensly floral aroma and petrol scent?

Riesling

65

The alcohol level in a Riesling can go as low as

7 - 8%

66

What is the acid level in a Riesling?

High to very high

67

What is the american grape that is a synonym for Riesling?

White Riesling

68

What are the top producing countries for Riesling?

France, Germany, US, Australia

69

Well known examples of Riesling are from

Mosel, Rheingau, Rheinhessen and Pfaltz in Germany, Alsace, Clare & Eden Valleys in Australia, Finger Lakes in NY, and Washington State

70

What is the alcohol level in a Riesling?

low to very high

71

What are the characteristic aromas of Riesling?

Peach, nectarine, honeysuckle, apricot, petrol and baking spices (well aged)

72

Oak aged Sauvignon Blanc is known as

Fume Blanc

73

Sauvignon Blancs best know growing area is

New Zealand

74

Sweet dessert wines from the Bordeaux area, including Sauternes, are from what white grape?

Sauvignon Blanc

75

Sauvignon Blanc is frequently blended with what grape to balance acid in Bordeaux?

Semillon

76

Well know examples of Sauvignon Blanc are from

New Zealand, Sancerre, Pouilly-Fume, white Bordeaux & Fume Blanc

77

The top producing countries of Sauvignon Blanc are

New Zealand, France, US, Chile & South Africa

78

The acid level of Sauvignon Blanc is

Medium plus to high.

79

The alcohol level of Sauvignon Blanc is

medium

80

The characteristic aromas of a cold climate Sauvignon Blanc are

Grass, hay, grapefruit

81

The characteristic aromas of a warm climate Sauvignon Blanc are

Melon, asparagus

82

The characteristic aroma of a Loire Valley Sauvignon Blanc is

Flint

83

The characteristic aromas of an oak aged Sauvignon Blanc is

toast, smoke

84

The characteristic aromas of a New Zealand Sauvignon Blanc is

Gooseberry

85

What white grape, due to its low natural acidity, is thought of as a blending partner?

Semillon

86

A Chardonny/Semillon blend can be found where?

Australia

87

What white grape has a distinct waxy or oily character?

Semillon

88

What region in Australia is known for producing 100% Semillon?

Hunter Valley

89

Viognier is typically found where in France?

Northern Rhone

90

What grape has the Virginia Wine Board declared as their state grape?

Viognier

91

The characteristic profile of Viognier is

Rich, full bodied, viscous

92

The characteristic aromas of Viognier are

peach, flowers, tangerine

93

What other names does Pinot Blanc go by in Italy, Germany & Austria?

Pinot Bianco in Italy, Weissburgunder in Germany and Austria

94

What grape has the aromas of flowers, spice, lychee & rose?

Gewurtzraminer

95

Where is Gewurtztraminer most prominent today?

Alsace

96

Name a neutral white grape also used in balsamic vinegar?

Trebbiano

97

What is the grape name for Trebbiano in France?

Ugni Blanc

98

What white grape is also used for the production of brandy & cognac in France?

Ugni Blanc

99

What is the white grape from Hungary?

Furmint

100

Name 4 indigenous white Italian grapes

Cortese, Vermintino, Glera, Verdicchio

101

Name 4 indigenous white grapes from Spain.

Albarino, Palamino, Xarel-lo, Pedro Ximenez

102

Name a white grape indigenous to Switzerland.

Chasselas

103

Name a white grape indigenous to Argentina

Torrentes

104

Name a white grape indigenous to Austria.

Gruner Veltliner

105

Name two white grapes significant in Germany

Muller Thurgau, Silvaner

106

Name white grapes significant in Portugal.

Alvarinho, Arinto, Fernao Pires, Laoureiro

107

Name white grapes significant in Greece.

Assyrtiko, Moschofilero, Rhoditis

108

Name secondary white grapes significant in France.

Marsanne, Rousanne, Aligote

109

What is the best known red blending partner to Cab. Sauv and Merlot in Bordeaux?

Cabernet Franc

110

Well known examples of Cabernet Franc are from

Bordeaux, Loire Valley, northeast Italy, New York State, California

111

The top producing countries of Cabernet Franc are

France, US, Italy

112

The characteristic aromas of a warm climate Cabernet Franc are

Raspberry, violet

113

The characteristic aromas of a cool climate Cabernet Franc are

Strawberry, cranberry, tobacco, mushroom, bell pepper

114

The tannin level found in a Cabernet Franc is

light to medium

115

The acid level found in Cabernet Franc is

medium to high

116

The alcohol level found in Cabernet Franc is

medium

117

What is the world's most widely grown red grape?

Cabernet Sauvignon

118

What is the red grape known for it's consistency, reliability, depth of flavor and ability to develop complex flavors over a long aging period?

Cabernet Sauvignon

119

The tannin levels in a Cabernet Sauvignon are

high

120

Cabernet Sauvignon is often blended with what grape in Australia?

Shiraz

121

The acid level found in Cabernet Sauvignon is

medium to high

122

The alcohol level found in Cabernet Sauvignon is

High

123

The top producing countries of Cabernet Sauvignon are

France, US, Australia, Chile

124

Well know examples of Cabernet Sauvignon are from

Bordeaux, Napa Valley

125

The characteristic aromas of a cool climate Cabernet Sauvignon are

Black current, black cherry, eucalyptus, bell pepper, mint

126

The characteristic aromas of a new oak aged Cabernet Sauvignon are

dark chocolate, cedar, vanilla, tobacco

127

The characteristic aromas of a well aged Cabernet Sauvignon are

coffee caramel, cigar box

128

Grenache is added to Syrah & Mourvedre to add

color, acidity and complexity

129

In what climate does Grenache thrive?

Hot & dry

130

Where did Grenache originate?

Spain where it is known as Garnacha

131

Grenache is known as what in Italy?

Cannonau

132

In what part of Italy would you find Grenache grown?

Sardinia

133

What red grape oxidizes quickly and picks up a salmon or orange tinge?

Grenache

134

What red grape can take on a noticibly rusticity in the wine's aroma or bouquet?

Grenache

135

Old vine Grenache is highly prized for it's

concentration of flavor

136

Well known examples of Grenache are from

Southern Rhone, Priorat, Rioja, Navarra, Australia

137

The top producing countries of Grenache are

France, Spain

138

The characteristic aromas of Grenache are

Strawberry, cranberry, sour cherry, flowers, black pepper

139

The acidity of Grenache is

low to medium

140

The tannin in Grenache is

low to medium

141

The alcohol in Grenache is

High.