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Flashcards in Viticulture Deck (127):
1

How many acres of grapevines are throughout the world?

19 million

2

How many tons of fruit are produced throughout the world?

70 million tons

3

What percentage of fruit produced become wine?

70%

4

What is the difference between winegrowing and viticulture?

Winegrowing refers to grapes to be used specifically for wine. Viticulture refers to all grapevines.

5

What do you call the beginning of a vines arms?

Spurs

6

A vine's spurs develop into what?

Canes

7

A vine's thick arms are also called what?

Cordons

8

The entire portion of the vine, including the fruit is called what?

The canopy

9

How does a young grape protect itself from damage?

It is camoflauged by being green, like the leaves and by having an acidic taste so not tasty to birds.

10

How do grape seeds spread naturally?

Via birds

11

Name the methods used for grape propagation?

Grafting and cloning

12

Describe field grafting.

Cutting a cane off of one vine and attaching it to the root of another vine.

13

How long does is usually take for a new vine to produce usable grapes?

3 years, or 3 leaves

14

How many years before a vine typically produces optimal quality grapes?

6 years.

15

How long can a grapevine produce grapes?

10 or more years.

16

Old vine refers to vines that are how old?

Usually 50, and more

17

What latitude is best for growing grapes?

30 - 50 degrees

18

Describe the ideal seasons for grapes to grow.

Long warm to hot days in summer and short cool to cold days in winter.

19

Bud break begins at what temperature?

50 F/ 10C

20

Photosynthesis begins upon the appearance of

Leaves

21

Flowering begins how many days after bud break?

40 - 80 days

22

What kind of weather is ideal for flowering?

warm & dry

23

How go grapevines pollinate?

breezes move the pollen into the flowers of the vine

24

The transitions between flower and fruit is called

Fruit set or berry set

25

What is coulure, or shatter?

Poor fruit set with many flowers failing to become berries

26

What is millerandage?

small berries mixed in with larger healthy berries.

27

Berries will grow for how long before veraison?

90 days

28

Veraison is most noticeable in red or white grapes?

Red

29

How long after veraison is harvest?

1 1/2 month to 2 months after veraison

30

What is meant by a grapes physiological maturity?

When the grape has developed it's color and size, phenolic compounds are developed.

31

What are the metabolic processes of a grapevine?

Photosynthesis, respiration, transpiration and translocation

32

Photosynthesis depends primarly on what two things?

Sunshine & temperature

33

The conversion of carbon dioxide and water into sugar is called what?

Photosynthesis

34

Photosynthesis slows at what temperatures?

50F/10C and 95F/35C

35

Optimal sugar production occurs at what temperatures?

70F/20C and 85F/30C

36

Why is aspect important?

The grapes will receive more sunlight.

37

The rate of respiration doubles for every increase of what degrees of temperature?

18F

38

What is the ideal diurnal temperature range?

warm to hot days and cool to cold nights

39

The openings on the underside of leaves are know as

Stomata

40

What is transpiration and why is it important?

Transpiration is when water evaporates through the leaves.

41

The rate of transpiration is closely related to

The weather

42

The stomata also control the intake of

carbon dioxide

43

What is translocation?

The movement of materials within the plant from one part to another.

44

What metabolic process uses sugar and then uses malic acid for energy?

Respiration

45

The process of materials moved form one part of the plant to another is called

Translocation

46

The process of the vine converting CO2 and water into sugar is called

Photosynthesis

47

The process of the vine breaking down sugars and other compounds for energy is called

Respiration

48

The process of water evaporating through the stomata and cooling the vine is called

Transpiration

49

The greatest vineyard sites have what 2 things in common?

They regulate the water supply and the ground is not very fertile.

50

The biggest factor in vintage variation is

Weather

51

The most changeable and uncontrollable variable in a vineyard is

Weather

52

What natural aspects of a vineyard can have a major impact on wine?

Climate, soil, sunlight and water

53

The actual meteorological conditions isw called

Weather

54

The historical average weather of a place is called

Climate

55

The climate of a particular vineyard's row is called

Microclimate

56

The climate of the full vineyard is called

Mesoclimate

57

The overall climate of a region is called

Macroclimate

58

The sugar-acid balance in grapes is affected by

the temperature in the vineyard

59

A poor sugar-acid balance is usually due to high or low temperatures?

High

60

How many inches of water is needed annually for vines?

20 - 30

61

Growth of mold and fungus can be due to

Fog

62

How can fog benefit a vineyard?

Fog can be useful for encouraging botrytis if that style of wine is the goal. Fog can reduce the temperature in a vineyard in hotter climates.

63

Wind can interfere with what part of the vine growth process?

Flowering & pollinating

64

List the common vineyard soil examples

Clay, chalk, sand, gravel and limestone

65

Soil with very fine particles that fit tightly so water had difficulty passing through is called

Clay

66

Soil with coarse particles with little water retention is called

Sand

67

Soil particles of intermediate size is called

Silt

68

Soil with larger pieces of solid inorganic matter, which roots must pass around to reach water or nutrients is

Rock & stone

69

Soil particles may be composed of what 3 particles?

Quartz, feldspar or calcium carbonate

70

Larger diurnal temperatures are experienced at hight or lower altitudes?

Higher

71

Hillside vineyard have more or less frost issues?

Less

72

Vineyards near larger bodies of water experience higher or lower temperature variations?

Lower

73

What climate has warm, dry summers, mild wet winters and low humidity?

Mediterranean

74

What climate is caused by planetary scale air mass circulation?

Mediterranean

75

The 3 climates most applicable to wine regions are

Maritime, Continental and Mediterranean

76

What climate is in influenced by an ocean, with high rainfall and mild temperatures overall?

Maritime

77

What climate has hotter summers, colder winters and may have less precipitation?

Continental

78

Grapevine diseases can be cause by what 3 things

Viruses, Fungi & bacteria

79

Propagating infected vine cuttings can result in what type of disease? Bacterial or Viral

Viral

80

A disease spread by insects and animals is referred to as what type of disease? Bacterial or Viral.

Bacterial

81

The bacterial contamination of a vine resulting in premature leaf fall is known as

Pierces disease

82

Pierces disease is caused by what insect?

Glassy winged sharpshooter

83

Fungal diseases are generally spread by

airborne spores in humid conditions

84

Powdery mildew is also known as

Oidium

85

Dawny mildew is also known as

Peronospora

86

Gray mold is also known as

Botrytis cinerea

87

Edelfaule is also known as

Botrytis cinerea

88

Pourriture noble is also knows as

Botrytis cinerea

89

Botrytis characteristic aroma has been described as being similar to

Honeysuckle

90

Morning fog followed by sun can encourage what disease that produced sweet dessert wines?

Botrytis cinerea

91

Phylloxera is native to what country?

US

92

The tiny louse responsible for the devestation of Europe's vineyards is called

Phylloxera

93

What type of soil is inhospitable to phylloxera?

Sand

94

Name 2 soil based grapevine pests

Phylloxera and nematodes

95

The roundworm the feeds on a vines roots is known as

Nematodes

96

What crop can be used as a biofumigant against nematodes?

Mustard

97

In what period within the life cycle of a vine does pruning, removing excess foliage and branches occur?

Winter, post harvest. Excess foliage is removed during the early growth to encourage photosynthesis, and leave removal can is also done during veraison.

98

How many nodes will a typical grower leave on a vine?

A dozen

99

Name two pruning stratagies/methods.

Cane & spur pruning

100

Describe cane pruning.

Canes grow off the root at the head. One or two canes are left to be trained on a wire for the next year's growth.

101

Describe spur pruning.

The vine has cordons which then have spurs located about 4 - 6 inches apart. Each spur grows canes that are pruned back.

102

Techniques that alter the position of number of clusters are collectively known as

Canopy management and training systems

103

What training system is generally used around the world

The trellis training system

104

Name 4 common vine training systems.

Pergola, bush/head, Guyot and Cordon

105

Describe bush or dead training

No trellis is used.

106

What cone pruned system has canes trained along a wire all in one direction?

Guyot system

107

The Guyot training system uses what pruning technique?

Cane pruning

108

The bush/head training system uses what pruning technique?

Spur pruning

109

The cordon training system uses what pruning technique?

Spur pruning

110

Vertical shoot positioning (VSP) is used in which training systems?

Guyot and cordon systems

111

In the US the sugar level in the must is measured in

Degrees Brix

112

What is the most common tool used to measure grape sugar?

Refractometer

113

What is the calculation to determine the potential alchohol level when you know the Brix?

Divide by 2

114

What is the name of the unit of measurement for grape sugar in France?

Baume

115

What is the name of the unit of measurement for grape sugar in Germany?

Oechsle

116

What country uses Klosterneuburger Mostwaage (KMW) as their until of measurement of grape sugar?

Austria & Switzerland

117

What metabolic process uses sunlight and cholorphyll to convert carbon dioxide into sugar?

Photosynthesis

118

What metabolic process is closely related to sunshine?

Photosynthesis

119

Warm, long days, minimal shading and Southern (or Northern) aspect are ideal conditions for what metabolic process?

Photosynthesis

120

What metabolic process is closely related to temperature?

Respiration

121

What is the metabolic process in which the plant brakes down sugars (or other compounds) in order to use their energy?

Respiration

122

What metabolic process can be discribed as:
Warm temperatures=fast respiration=loss of malic acid

Respiration

123

What metabolic process uses sugar, and when sugar is not available, uses malic acid for energy?

Respiration

124

What metabolic process is closely related to weather?

Transpiration

125

What metabolic process involves water evaporating through the stomata to cool the vine?

Transpiration

126

Put these four soil types in order from smallest in particle size to largest: rocks, silt, clay and sand

Clay, silt, sand, rocks

127

What metabolic process breaks down sugar and converts it to biological energy?

Respiration