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Flashcards in heart failure shit 2 Deck (21):
1

signs of ↑ left-sided pressure

1. Rales
2. Hypoxia
3. Tachypnea
4. Sitting bolt upright

2

signs of ↑ right-sided pressure

1. edema
(folloing gravity in legs, sacrum, scrotum)
2. Hepativ congestion/hepatomegaly
3. JVD

3

JVP =

CVP = right atrial filling pressure
Assumes no blockage or valve in between
Normal is < 5 cm H2O, so typically collapsed

4

JVD =

jugular distension = ↑ CVP

5

JVP: triphashic wave

Distinguish from carotid

6

JVP: A wave

atrial contraction

7

JVP: C wave

closing of the tricuspid valve early in systole

8

JVP: V wave:

movement of the RV annulus and tricuspid valve backward at the very end of systole (before the valve opens)

9

Gallop is a

S3, S4-- extra heart sounds

10

S3 can be present in

in normal young people; abnormal after age 40

11

S3 is typical of

HFrEF/dilated heard

12

S3 cadance

Ken-tuc-ky (S1, s2, s3)

13

S4 is caused by

atria contracting forcefully in an effert to overcome an abnormally stiff or hypertrophic LV

14

S4 is

usually abnormal
ten-ne-ssee
s4-s1-s2
absent in AFIB

15

summation gallop is

all 4

16

heart failure symptoms: typical

1. breathlessness
2. orthopnea
3. paroxysmal nocturnal dysnpnoea
4. reduced exercise tolerance
5. fatigue, tiredness, increased time to recover after exercise
6. ankle swelling

17

HF signs: more specific

1. elevated JVP
2. hepatojugular reflex
3. third hear sound (gallop rhythm)
4. latteral displaced apical impulse
5. cardiac murmur

18

Co-existing conditions which predispose to HF

1. heart disease
(coronary, valve disease, hypertension)
2. cardiac risk disorder:
(diabetes, renal failure)
3. absence of non-HF causes of dyspnea

19

Natriuretic peptides (BNP)

B-type natriuretic is secreted by the myocardium in response to either ventricular stretch or hyperadrenergic state/RAAD activation, ischemia

20

primary BNP cause by

ventricular stretch (measure of preload)

21

Secondary BNP caused by

hyperadrenergic state, RAAS activation, ischemia