HF and hypertrophy Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in HF and hypertrophy Deck (21):
1

The response of the heart to acute hemodynamic and adrenergic stimuli?

1. Altered P/V relationships
2. Altered inotropy
3. Altered chronotropy

2

The adult heart is able to alter its_____ in response to chronic stresses

size and shape

3

physiological hypertrophy is caused by

chronic exercise or pregnancy

4

physiological hypertrophy will result in

1. myocyte length increasedin more than width
2. no fibrosis
3. no cardiac dysfunction

5

pathological hypertrophy is caused by

chronic hypertension or
aortic calve stenosis

6

pathological hypertrophy will result in

1. myocyte wider than it is long
2. fibrosis
3. can have cardiac dysfunction

7

Cardiac dilation is caused by

1. myocardial infarction
2. DCM
3. pathological hypertrophy can also lead to this

8

Cardiac dilation is can lead to

1. myocyte length increasing much more than width
2. excessive fibrosis
3. myocyte death
4. advanced cardiac dysfunction

9

Myosin Heavy Chain Isoforms

1. α and β MHC isoforms are found in the heart:
2. The heterodimers (αα, αβ and ββ) have distinct ATPase activity (and functional properties)
3. The ratio of these isoforms varies across species and throughout development

10

α and β MHC are encoded by

different genes and their expression is transcriptionally regulated

11

pathological hypertrophy results in ____ in ATPase and ___ in ___ MHC

decrease in ATPase

increase in BB MHC

12

physiological hypertrophy results in ____ in ATPase and ___ in ___ MHC

increase in ATPase

increase in aa MHC

13

Cardiac adaption is a

dynamic process that involves not only architectural but also structural modifications

14

In response to stress, both the

quantity and the quality of the contractile elements is altered

15

The heart has

phenotypic and genotypic plasticity

16

Programmatic alterations in gene and protein expression occur in response to

pathologic or physiologic triggers

17

The phenotypic adaptions may involve both

transcriptional and post-translational modifications

18

The functional adaptations are generally

adaptive but over time can result in ventricular dysfunction

19

LVH : Cellular mechanisms

1. Likely increase in Ca current via L-type Ca channel
2. Reduced SR pump fxn
(↑ PLB/SERCA2 ratio)
3. Impaired myofilament relaxation
4. Altered (increased) cytosolic calcium and new steady-state

20

_____ is Sufficient to Correct Mechanical Defects in Cardiocytes From Patients with Heart Failure

SERCA2 Gene Transfer

21

Concept of positive feed-back mechanisms that ____

amplify disease severity