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Flashcards in regulation 4 Deck (29):
1

Humoral control of the vasculature

1. Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone
2. Atrial Natriuretic Peptide

2

What is the Primary system for long-term control of blood pressure?

Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone system

3

renin release is stimulated by

sympathetic stimulation, decreased blood pressure in renal artery, and decreased Na+ reabsorption

4

angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) function

cleaves angiotensin I to Angiotensin II (AII)

5

A2 is a

vasoconstrictor

6

ACE inhibitors & Angiotensin II receptor blockers = Therapeutics for treatment of

hypertension & heart failure

7

direct effects of AII (A2)

systemic vasoconstriction via binding to GPCRs on VSMCs.

8

indirect effects of AII (A2)

Stimulates sympathetic activity and release of aldosterone, endothelin, and ADH

9

aldosterone is a

steroid hormone produced by the adrenal cortex

10

aldosterone functions to

1. promote reabsorption of Na and water in the kidney collecting duct
2. increased blood volume and blood pressure

11

anti-diuretic hormones are

1. ADH
2. arginine vasopressin

they are peptide hormones

12

anti-diuretic hormones are formed in the

hypothalamus and released by pituitary

13

anti-diuretic hormones release is stimulated by

1. hypovolemia
2. hypotension
3. high osmolaroty
4. angiotensin II
5. sympathetic stimulation

14

anti-diuretic hormones functions

1. Increases water reabsorption in kidney
2. Can also bind to receptors in vasculature to cause vasoconstriction.

15

Atrial Natriuretic Peptide is released by the

atria (mostly right) in response to stretch

16

ANP functions

1. Long-term regulation of Na+ and water balance
2. increases glomerular filtration rate and secretion of Na+ and water (natriuresis and diuresis).

17

ANP mechanism

1. ANP binds to Natriuretic Peptide Receptors
2. Receptor guanylate cyclases (not GPCRs), produce cGMP

18

natriuretic means

sodium excretion

19

Integrated Responses of the Cardiovascular System

1. Gravity
2. Exercise
3. Hemorrhage

20

Immediate Effects of Standing

1. Right atrial pressure drops
2. Venous pressure in legs increases
3. Blood pools in veins

21

Secondary Effects of Standing

Increased capillary hydrostatic pressure (Pc) causes:
1. net capillary filtration
2. increased interstitial fluid
3. decreased blood volume
(which leads to decreased mean arterial pressure)

22

What decreases with age?

1. Spontaneous AP firing rate in Sinoatrial Myocytes
2. max heart rate
3. intrinsic hr

23

why do vasoactive metabolites result in increased extracellular K+?

Na+/K+-ATPase can’t keep up, so K+ accumulates in interstitial space

24

What is a counter part to adenylate cyclase?

Phosphodiesterases

25

HCN functions

Promotes excitability and spontaneous action potentials

26

HCN expressed in

Highly expressed in sinoatrial myocytes

27

HCN activity increased by

sympathetic stimulation via cAMP binding

28

NCX serve to

remove Ca2+ from cytoplasm

29

NCX promote

excitability and spontaneous action potentials