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Flashcards in heart failure the gift that keeps on giving Deck (17):
1

3 Major Flavors of Symptoms

1. ↓ Cardiac output
2. ↑ Pulmonary venous pressure
3. ↑ Central venous pressure

2

↓ Cardiac output signs

Symptoms of decreased organ perfusion

3

signs of ↑ Pulmonary venous pressure

(Left-sided)
Breathlessness

4

signs of ↑ Central venous pressure

(Right-sided)
Edema

5

signs of ↓ cerebral perfusion

Sleepiness, confusion

6

Symptoms of ↑ left-sided pressure

↑ Pulmonary venous pressure

7

signs of ↑ Pulmonary venous pressure

1. Breathlessness (dyspnea)
2. Dyspnea on exertion
3. Orthopnea
4. Paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea
5. Acute pulmonary edema

8

Paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea (PND)

1. Delayed SOB, waking patients from sleep
2. Classically patient gets out of bed and ambulates to relieve symptoms
3. Relates to mobilization of edema from tissue through lymphatics back into blood stream

9

Symptoms of ↑ right-sided pressure

↑ Central venous pressure (RV failure)

10

signs of ↑ Central venous pressure (RV failure)

1. Peripheral swelling / dependent edema
2. Ascites
3. Hepatic congestion
4. Intestinal congestion (protein-losing enteropathy)

11

edema in HF

increased central venous pressure (CVP) upsets the balance of starling forces

12

Increased circulating volume (preload)

1. Sodium load in diet
2. Renal failure

13

Increased pressure (afterload)

1. Uncontrolled hypertension (LV)
2. Worsening aortic stenosis (LV)
3. Pulmonary embolism (RV)

14

What can cause Worsened contractility (inotropy)?

1. Myocardial ischemia
2. Initiation of negative inotrope (beta-blocker or calcium channel blocker)

15

Increased metabolic demands includes?

1. Fever,
2. infection
3. Anemia
4. Hyperthyroidism
5. Pregnancy

16

what are the symptomatic classifications of heart failure?

1. NYHA functional class
2. ACC/AHA HF stage

17

cause of tachycardia

compensate for low stroke volume