Flashcards in Helicobacter/Clostridia Deck (104)
______ is associated with acute gastritis and duodenal ulcers in humans
______ has been isolated from gastric mucosa of humans, cats dogs and pigs
______ is a common cause of gastric ulcers in ferrets
______ , ______ , and ______ are from humans and may be clinically important assocaited with diarrhea
______ , ______ . and ______ isolated from the bilary tract of rodents and humans play a possible role in cholecystitis and cancer of the gall bladder
The ______ genome has been sequenced
______ has been isolated from multpile cases of acute gastritis after gastric endoscopy
______ generates ammonimum ions and CO2 that are responsible for much of the tissue damage in Helicobacter infections
T/F Helicobacter organisms are highly antibiotic resistant
FALSE susceptible to a number of drugs
T/F Clostridium are facultative anaerobes
FALSE- they are obligate anearobes
What are the 2 broad types of clostridia?
Those that do not actively invade/multiply
Those that do invade and multiply in the tissue
T/F Clostridia that actively invade tissue and multpily are also known as the gas gangrene group
T/F C. botulinum is an example of a gas gangrene clostridia
False, it is a member of the other group
______ and ______ are Clostridia that do not actively invade tissue/multiply rely solely on toxin production at localized sites or in vitro.
C. Tetani and C. botulinum
What is the habitat of C. tetani?
soil, fecal material, readily found in horse and human feces
T/F There are several serotypes of Clostridium tetani that are significantly important
FALSE only the toxin is of clinical significance
______ is the toxin of C. tetani that is responsible for clinical disease
Tetanosporin block ______ release specifically ______ and ______ at the level of the brainstem and spinal cord
glycine and gamma-aminobutyric acid
What are the clinical signs associated with tetanosportin?
continuous spasms of opposing muscle groups- tentany
T/F once the tetanus toxin binds to gangliosides it is easily reversible
FALSE it is almost irreversible and antibody is not effective once it is bound
______ produces local necrosis and thereby stimulates the growth of C. tetani
______ binds to the nueromuscular junction but its function is unknown
Give a brief pathogensis of Clostridium tetani
organism/usually the spre form enters would/tissue w/ low oxygen tension
deep wounds usually innoculated w/ contmainating bacteria which cause necrosis in the surrounding tissues, reduce the O2 tension and allow growth/germination of C. tetani
Toxin Spreads along the peripheral nerves or hematogenous and through the lymph
What is ascending tetanus?
Term form tetanus toxin affecting those nerves closest to the lesion
What is descending tetanus?
when toxin spreads through the lymph- classic lock jaw
nerves affected first are those that are most sensitive- horses and humans usually get this
______ use has led to an increase reports of tetanus in calves
______ is given to provide immediate passive immunity following and injury followed by or given simultaneously w/ the ______ to prevent tetanus
______ is a relatively rare cause of food poisoning in humans, domestic animals and waterfowl
______ was associated with an outbreak in CA w/ intravenous black tar heroin users