Flashcards in Past Exams 2008/2010 Deck (115)
____________________ is a clostridial organism that causes enteric infections subsequent to antimicrobial therapy.
__________________________ is an organism that causes rhinitis, tracheobronchitis and occasionally pneumonia in cats (probably in association with a viral agent).
___________________________ is a cause of contagious epididymitis in rams and abortion and decreased fertility in ewes.
___________________________________ is a common cause of enteritis in humans and abortions in sheep
___________________________________ is a facultative anaerobic organism that causes granulomatous, tumor like lesions primarily in the head and neck area of cattle.
___________________________________ is an organism that causes acute inflammation of the nasal turbinates, acute air-sacculitis, swelling of the head and wattles, decreased food intake and a marked loss in egg production in egg-laying chickens.
___________________________________ is a difficult to culture organism that is transmitted venereally but which has been eradicated from the U.S. horse population
___________________________________ is an organism that causes tracheobronchitis and chronic paroxysmal coughing and toxemia in humans. It is most damaging to infants under 1 year of age.
___________________________________ occasionally infects wounds and is a cause of Apitting edema@.
___________________________________ is a cause of enteritis and focal hepatic necrosis in laboratory rodents
________________________ is the name of the flaccid paralysis syndrome commonly observed subsequent to infection with Campylobacter jejuni
___________________________________ and ___________________________________ are the two main causes of bacterial meningitis in humans.
___________________________________ and ___________________________________ are two organisms that cause disease in ruminants in association with swampy areas and liver fluke migration
Clostridium novyi type B
________________________________ is an organism that usually enters via a wound, tick bite, or through the conjunctiva of humans. It spreads from the regional lymph nodes to the liver, spleen, bone marrow, and lymphoid tissues, forming granulomatous nodules which tend to ulcerate.
___________________________________ is the cause of Aforage poisoning@ in horses.
___________________________________ is a cause of persistent bacteremia, epididymitis and testicular atrophy in dogs
___________________________________ is the substance supplied to some Haemophilus species by a Staphylococcus nurse colony.
___________________________________ is an organism that causes ulcerative enteritis of the lower 1/3 of the intestine of a variety of wild and domestic avian species.
____________________________________ is the currently used vaccine for prevention of brucellosis in cattle.
_____ is a clostridial toxin that produces liquefactive necrosis, edema and hemorrhage in the brains of sheep.
Clostridium perfringens epsilon toxin
________________________________ is the major toxin involved in infections with Fusobacterium necrophorum.
___________________________________ is the most pathogenic species of Brucella for humans.
___________________________________ is the cause of undulant fever in humans.
______________________ is the test used to screen milk samples for Brucella abortus infected cows.
Milk Ring Test
Why do we not routinely perform bacterial cultures for Fusobacterium necrophorum?
It is almost always in mixed cultures, ie., it is difficult to isolate in pure culture. Also, most of the infections are reasonably characteristic and there is no need to identify specific bacterial agents involved. (It actually isn=t hard to grow, just hard to isolate; Grows on anaerobic blood agar plates).
List three diseases in which Pasteurella multocida is not primarily a respiratory tract pathogen. Also list the capsular type and host animal involved
Disease Capsular type Host animal
Fowl cholera A Domestic and wild birds
Cat and dog bite wounds D Cats and dogs
cHemorrhagic septicemia B&E Water buffalo, bison, cattle
Briefly describe the mechanism by which the leukotoxin of Mannheimia haemolytica causes a marked increase in the inflammatory reaction in pulmonary tissues
The leukotoxin is an RTX (pore forming cytolytic toxin) that is able to damage or lyse phagocytic cells which releases the hydrolytic enzymes of those cells onto the surface of pulmonary tissues
Briefly explain on an immunologic basis, why some of the clostridial immunizing products are toxoids and some are formalinized whole cells?
Formalinized whole cell products are used to protect against infection. Toxoids may only generate antibody to neutralize toxins that are produced by an organism. In some cases, antitoxic immunity is more important than protecting against infection because some of the toxins produce disease when present in very small quantities. In other cases it is most important to protect against infection, often because there might be multiple virulence factors or toxins produced.
Describe the pathogenesis of Adescending tetanus@.
Clostridium tetani is introduced into a wound in spore form. The spores germinate and the organism produces tetanospasmin (tetanus toxin). The toxin is absorbed by the blood and lymph and transported throughout the body. It acts as a protease and blocks neurotransmitter release (specifically glycine and gamma aminobutyric acid) at the level of the spinal cord and brain stem. It selectively acts on the inhibitory nerve network and results in spastic paralysis. The nerves supplying the muscles of the head and neck are affected first followed by the respiratory muscles