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1

Ottoman Empire

- Muslim Turks who controlled much of the Middle East and Africa until WWI, when they aligned with Germany (the losing side of WWI), which crumbled their empire.

- They were responsible for the Armenian genocide.

- Invaded the Middle East in about 1500.

2

What is the book Animal Farm based on?

Joseph Stalin's betrayal of the Russian Revolution.

3

What was the Russian Revolution?

A series of revolutions in Russia in 1917.

- they kicked out the Tsar Nichols II, which destroyed the Russian Empire.

- the government was taken over by communist Bolsheviks, who created the Soviet Union.

4

Who were the Bolsheviks?

Russian communists.
They were Marxist/socialists.

They favored a "dictatorship of the working class".

5

Who was the leader of the Bolsheviks?

Vladimir Lenin

6

What was the Russian Social Democratic Labor Party?

What happened to it?

It was a Russian political party (Marxist/Socialist) founded in 1898.


The party split.

- the more moderate of the two groups was called "Mensheviks" (they wanted democracy)

- the group that favored a "dictatorship of the working class" were the "Bolsheviks".

7

Russian Empire

(aka "Imperial Russia")
Created by Peter the Great in 1721.

- it was an absolute monarchy ruled by Tsars.

- most people were peasants (or Serfs) who lived in rural areas.

8

Who created the Russian empire?

Peter the Great

- in the 16th century.

- through conquest

9

Where is Russia located?

Asia and Eastern Europe.

10

What is the most populous country in the world?

China

11

Why did the Russian Empire fall?

People became angry at Tsar Nicholas II because:

- he gave up Russian power to the Japanese to end the Russo-Japanese war

- in 1917 there was a food shortage caused by WWI ruble inflation

- people rebelled and Nicholas gave up power. He and his family were shot.

12

What was the background of the Russian Revolution?

During the 1890s, Russian industry improved. This put more jobs in the cities.

13

What caused more Russians to move to cities?

- In the 1890s, serfs were Emancipated.

- industry improved, which put more jobs in the cities.

- the serfs went to the cities to work. They found jobs, but the working conditions were horrid.

- they began to create political parties in order to try and change the conditions.

14

What was "Bloody Sunday"?

It took place in Russia in 1905.

3,000 people marched to Nicholas II's palace to show a petition for reform.

- his soldiers fired at the people, killing 100.

- lead to the Russian Revolution

15

What also lead to Russian discontent with Nicholas II?

Over 3,000,000 Russians dying in WWI

16

What did Nicholas II do to further piss off everyone in sight?

He took personal control of the Russian Army, leaving his wife, Alexandra, in charge of the government.

- a mystic and faith healer named Rasputin had a lot of control over Alexandra's decisions, which irritated everyone.

17

How did the Russian revolution begin?

With a series of strikes by workers.

- within weeks, most of St Petersburg's factories had closed.

- a few months later, Nicholas gave up his authority to a provisional government.

18

October Revolution

October 10, 1917

The Bolsheviks' Red Army took over and kicked out the provisional government.

- all parties who opposed the Bolsheviks were broken up.

- private property began to be given up as everything was going to be owned by the state

19

Russian Civil War

1917-1922 (right after the Russian Revolution ended)

Fought mostly between:

- the Red Army (Bolshevik communists)
- the White Army (those that opposed the communists)

20

How many people died during the Russian Civil War?

8,000,000

Many from starvation.

21

War communism

The name for the economic policy Lenin introduced in 1918, as a response to the Russian Civil War

- as much food as possible was sent to Red Army troops.

- millions of people starved to death as a result.

- the red army won, though.

Lenin ended the policy in 1921.

22

Socialism

Economic system where the means of producing wealth (factories, offices, etc) are owned by society as a whole.

- this means the value produced belongs to everyone in society as opposed to a small class of private owners.

23

Social democracy

Where the government takes some wealth from the rich and gives it to the poor like a communist state, but there is still private ownership of capital.

- right now, we live in a social democratic republic (because we live in a republic, not a democracy)

24

In Marxist theory, what is socialism?

The temporary social state between capitalism and communism.

25

Communism

A way of running an economy and a government where:

- the means of production (factories, equipment) are communally owned

- there is no state, money, social classes

26

What are the main differences between socialists and communists?

In communism:

- the state and money do not exist

27

What do communists believe?

They believe they we should eliminate the wealthy class (who own the means of production).

- this way, decisions can be made to benefit the collective population rather than to serve the greed of one or several individuals.

28

Who led the Russian Revolution?

Vladimir Lenin and Leon Trotsky

29

What are some good points of Karl Marx and Friederich Engels "Communist Manifesto"

It says we should:

- abolish child labor
- have a strong progressive income tax
- have free education

30

How did Stalin come to power?

After Lenin (who was the leader of the Russian Revolution) died from the bullet wound, Trotsky and Stalin got into a power struggle over who would rule the party.

Stalin won.