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Flashcards in History III Deck (38)
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Why did Texas declare independence from Mexico?

Because the President of Mexico, Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna had become a dictator (he was president 11 times).


First American colonies

- the Spaniards came first, killing many native Americans (incas, Aztecs)
- then other Europeans came



Pre-Columbian civilization in South America

- the last Inca ruler was executed by Spanish conquistador Francisco Pizarro.



Native American people who lived in Mexico.

They used human sacrifice

- the Spanish leader Hernan Cortez destroyed their empire.

- they thought Cortez and his men were gods



Central American civilization (near El Salvador and Guatemala)

- advanced in writing and mathematics and architecture. They made carvings and statues.

- at some point around 1,000 A.D. there was a decline in the civilization until they basically died out (no one knows why).


First successful English colony in America


- Jamestown (in Virginia)
- They hoped to find gold and become rich
- They lived on an island so they could defend themselves

They had lots of problems:
- disease
- insects
- they resorted to cannibalism in winter


Plymouth colony

An English colony in North America (in Plymouth, Massachusetts)

- existed from 1621 to 1691

- first large permanent English settlement in New England


Who formed the Plymouth Colony?

- Separatists (those that wanted to become independent of the Church of England - England's monarch was in charge of the Church of England).

- Anglicans (who wanted to be free of the doctrines of Roman Catholicism)

(together, the "Pilgrims")


King Philips War


War between English colonists and native Americans

- as more colonists (puritans) came, the need for land increased.

- the puritans began a war with the Indians and their leader, who was called "King Philip" in English .

- the Indians lost. About 3,000 died. Many were made slaves



English Protestant settlers who (unlike the separatists or Anglicans) did not feel the English reformation went far enough.

- they were very modest and tried to become more pure through worship and doctrine.


Examples of English settler Puritanism?


Scottish Presbyterians


The 13 colonies

British North American colonies on the eastern seaboard of the US.

Started by people looking to:

- make money in American goods not found in England (like tobacco)
- find religious freedom

The colonies were:

Virginia (first, at Jamestown)
New Hampshire
Rhode Island
New York
New Jersey
North Carolina
South Carolina


What led to the American Revolutionary War?

Tension arose between the colonies and the British empire after the French and Indian war.

- the British tried to dictate who could and could not trade with the colonies (the colonies wanted free trade).

The Brits began levying taxes on the colonies that they didn't want to pay, such as:

- the stamp act
- the Intolerable acts (coercive acts)


American Revolutionary War

War fought between Great Britain and the original 13 colonies in America.

Took place from 1775-1783

The American Army (army of the colonies) led by George Washington, and other generals, defeated the armies of the British.

The colonies then became independent, meaning the British empire was no longer in charge of them.


What law did British parliament pass that sparked the American Revolutionary War?

The 1765 stamp act.

It required colonists to buy stamps (pay duties, or taxes) for legal papers, newspapers, and playing cards.

- the stamp money went to the king

- the colonies stopped buying these things in a boycott


Boston Tea Party

Happened after the Stamp Act

Colonists had to pay so much tax on tea that they could make no profit selling it.

- Samuel Adams and a group calling themselves the "sons of liberty" dressed up as Indians and went onto ships in Boston harbor.

- they dumped boxes of tea overboard.

- in angry response, the British govt passed the intolerable acts


Why were the colonists so upset at the British govt?

Because they were being taxed by the govt on goods, yet they had no part in how that govt was run.

This lead to the cry: "no taxation without representation!"


Who was in charge of Britain when the American Revolutionary War started to break out?

King George III


Boston Massacre


5 civilians were killed by British soldiers.

- the civilians were throwing snowballs at them.

- John Adams (future president) defended the British (because he believed everyone deserved a fair trial).

- the soldiers were punished by having their thumbs branded


Paul Revere


Famous for his "midnight ride" in 1775 before the battles of Lexington and Concord.

- the British learned colonial patriots had stored guns in Concord, Massachusetts. He rode to Lexington to tell people the British were coming.


Intolerable Acts

Laws passed by British parliament on colonists in 1774 (the colonists called them "intolerable acts")

The British passed them to punish the colonists for the Boston tea party.

The laws included:

- closing Boston harbor until colonists paid for the tea
- allowing Britain to house troops wherever it wanted (the Quartering Act)
- giving Ohio to Canada (the Quebec Act)


What was done as a result of the Intolerable Act?

There was a meeting of delegates from the 13 colonies (to decide what to do about their problems with Britain).

This led to a regular meeting of a convention of delegates.

It was called "the Continental Congress".

- it governed the colonies before and during the American Revolution.


Continental Congress

- It was a convention of delegates from the 13 English colonies.

- There was a first continental congress and a second continental congress.


What did the second continental congress achieve?

On July 4, 1776, it approved the Declaration of Independence (written by Thomas Jefferson).


Declaration of Independence

Written by Thomas Jefferson
Signed July 4, 1776

States that Americans were no longer under British rule and that the 13 colonies united to become a new country.

Before the declaration the US was not a country. The individual states were British colonies. So King George still ruled them.



Someone who supported the British government during the American Revolutionary War.

A loyalist.



A member of the patriotic party during the American Revolutionary War.
A supporter of the Revolution.


- The political party that arose in around 1830 in opposition to the Democratic Party.

- They favored economic expansion, a high protective tariff, while opposing the strength of the presidency in relation to the legislature.

- they were basically anti-Federalists. They were interested in states' rights and opposed a strong central government.

- some were in favor of seceding from the union.


Federalist Party

Political group in early US history that favored the adoption of the Constitution.

- They favored a strong central government.

- an advocate of the Federal system of government.



Purchased by the US from Spain in 1819.


Monroe Doctrine

Articulated to Congress by President James Monroe in 1823.

The doctrine signified a break from Europe and declared the US would uphold a policy of:

- non-intervention
- non-colonization


Main concepts of the Monroe Doctrine

1). The US would not interfere with the affairs, wars, or colonies of Eastern Europe.

2). The Western Hemisphere was not available for future colonization and any attempt to do so by a European nation would be considered a hostile act.


When did the US stop upholding the non-interventionist ideals set forth in the Monroe Doctrine?


- we intervened in the Cuban War for for independence (from Spain) and started the Spanish-American war.

- shortly thereafter, we engaged in the Philippine-American war.


What became of the US's non-interventionist policy after the Philippine-American war?

We embraced it again, until WWI, when we joined the allies.

- after which, FDR created his "Good Neighbor" policy.

- but WWII happened, and then the Cold War was on and we were in everybody's business.


First English colonists to arrive in North America


English colonists arrived on Roanoke Island, Virgina (now North Carolina).

- it was supposed to be a profit making colony but they came with nothing to trade with.

- by 1590 the colony had disappeared.

- it became the lost colony.


What happened after the second disastrous English colony attempt (Jamestown) in America?

The colony's sponsors had to re-evaluate their goals as to what good it was sending people to virginia.

- they decided that (if nothing else) it was a good way of disposing of England's "surplus population".

- then they sent 500 more people, 400 of whom died.



Pocahontas' husband, the Englishman John Rolfe, was the first English colonist to come up with a useful product to grow in Virginia:

Tobacco (a native weed)

- the result was sensational and soon tobacco plantations were everywhere.

- the Indians' sacred weed became the colonists' staple crop.

- it so dominated Virginia's economy that throughout the colonial period it was used for money.


What happened with the soaring demand for tobacco during the colonial American era?

It created a demand for labor.

- the Indians weren't willing to serve the people who were plowing up their hunting ground and there weren't enough Englishmen to do the work.

- so they imported slaves.



First black slaves were purchased