Flashcards in History III Deck (38)
Why did Texas declare independence from Mexico?
Because the President of Mexico, Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna had become a dictator (he was president 11 times).
First American colonies
- the Spaniards came first, killing many native Americans (incas, Aztecs)
- then other Europeans came
Pre-Columbian civilization in South America
- the last Inca ruler was executed by Spanish conquistador Francisco Pizarro.
Native American people who lived in Mexico.
They used human sacrifice
- the Spanish leader Hernan Cortez destroyed their empire.
- they thought Cortez and his men were gods
Central American civilization (near El Salvador and Guatemala)
- advanced in writing and mathematics and architecture. They made carvings and statues.
- at some point around 1,000 A.D. there was a decline in the civilization until they basically died out (no one knows why).
First successful English colony in America
- Jamestown (in Virginia)
- They hoped to find gold and become rich
- They lived on an island so they could defend themselves
They had lots of problems:
- they resorted to cannibalism in winter
An English colony in North America (in Plymouth, Massachusetts)
- existed from 1621 to 1691
- first large permanent English settlement in New England
Who formed the Plymouth Colony?
- Separatists (those that wanted to become independent of the Church of England - England's monarch was in charge of the Church of England).
- Anglicans (who wanted to be free of the doctrines of Roman Catholicism)
(together, the "Pilgrims")
King Philips War
War between English colonists and native Americans
- as more colonists (puritans) came, the need for land increased.
- the puritans began a war with the Indians and their leader, who was called "King Philip" in English .
- the Indians lost. About 3,000 died. Many were made slaves
English Protestant settlers who (unlike the separatists or Anglicans) did not feel the English reformation went far enough.
- they were very modest and tried to become more pure through worship and doctrine.
Examples of English settler Puritanism?
The 13 colonies
British North American colonies on the eastern seaboard of the US.
Started by people looking to:
- make money in American goods not found in England (like tobacco)
- find religious freedom
The colonies were:
Virginia (first, at Jamestown)
What led to the American Revolutionary War?
Tension arose between the colonies and the British empire after the French and Indian war.
- the British tried to dictate who could and could not trade with the colonies (the colonies wanted free trade).
The Brits began levying taxes on the colonies that they didn't want to pay, such as:
- the stamp act
- the Intolerable acts (coercive acts)
American Revolutionary War
War fought between Great Britain and the original 13 colonies in America.
Took place from 1775-1783
The American Army (army of the colonies) led by George Washington, and other generals, defeated the armies of the British.
The colonies then became independent, meaning the British empire was no longer in charge of them.
What law did British parliament pass that sparked the American Revolutionary War?
The 1765 stamp act.
It required colonists to buy stamps (pay duties, or taxes) for legal papers, newspapers, and playing cards.
- the stamp money went to the king
- the colonies stopped buying these things in a boycott
Boston Tea Party
Happened after the Stamp Act
Colonists had to pay so much tax on tea that they could make no profit selling it.
- Samuel Adams and a group calling themselves the "sons of liberty" dressed up as Indians and went onto ships in Boston harbor.
- they dumped boxes of tea overboard.
- in angry response, the British govt passed the intolerable acts
Why were the colonists so upset at the British govt?
Because they were being taxed by the govt on goods, yet they had no part in how that govt was run.
This lead to the cry: "no taxation without representation!"
Who was in charge of Britain when the American Revolutionary War started to break out?
King George III
5 civilians were killed by British soldiers.
- the civilians were throwing snowballs at them.
- John Adams (future president) defended the British (because he believed everyone deserved a fair trial).
- the soldiers were punished by having their thumbs branded
Famous for his "midnight ride" in 1775 before the battles of Lexington and Concord.
- the British learned colonial patriots had stored guns in Concord, Massachusetts. He rode to Lexington to tell people the British were coming.
Laws passed by British parliament on colonists in 1774 (the colonists called them "intolerable acts")
The British passed them to punish the colonists for the Boston tea party.
The laws included:
- closing Boston harbor until colonists paid for the tea
- allowing Britain to house troops wherever it wanted (the Quartering Act)
- giving Ohio to Canada (the Quebec Act)
What was done as a result of the Intolerable Act?
There was a meeting of delegates from the 13 colonies (to decide what to do about their problems with Britain).
This led to a regular meeting of a convention of delegates.
It was called "the Continental Congress".
- it governed the colonies before and during the American Revolution.
- It was a convention of delegates from the 13 English colonies.
- There was a first continental congress and a second continental congress.
What did the second continental congress achieve?
On July 4, 1776, it approved the Declaration of Independence (written by Thomas Jefferson).
Declaration of Independence
Written by Thomas Jefferson
Signed July 4, 1776
States that Americans were no longer under British rule and that the 13 colonies united to become a new country.
Before the declaration the US was not a country. The individual states were British colonies. So King George still ruled them.
Someone who supported the British government during the American Revolutionary War.
A member of the patriotic party during the American Revolutionary War.
A supporter of the Revolution.
- The political party that arose in around 1830 in opposition to the Democratic Party.
- They favored economic expansion, a high protective tariff, while opposing the strength of the presidency in relation to the legislature.
- they were basically anti-Federalists. They were interested in states' rights and opposed a strong central government.
- some were in favor of seceding from the union.
Political group in early US history that favored the adoption of the Constitution.
- They favored a strong central government.
- an advocate of the Federal system of government.
Purchased by the US from Spain in 1819.