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Forms of subsidies given out by the government

- welfare payment
- housing loans
- student loans
- farm subsidies

If a subsidy is given out, the government is said to subsidize that group/industry.


Example of a government subsidy:

If a domestic industry, like farming, is struggling to survive in a highly competitive international industry with low prices, a government may give cash subsidies to farms so that they can sell at the low market price but still achieve financial gain.


Why has solar power been a bad industry the past few years?

There has been a supply glut of solar panels in the marketplace, reflecting Chinese government incentives to boost production, such as:

- loan guarantees
- tax breaks

The government gave these incentives when companies produced solar.



A government-imposed trade restriction that limits the number, or in certain cases the value, of goods and services that can be imported or exported during a particular time period.


What is the purpose of quotas?

- they are used in international trade to help regulate the volume of trade between countries.

- they are sometimes imposed on specific goods and services to reduce imports, thereby increasing domestic production.

- in theory, this helps protect domestic production by restricting foreign competition.


Politics and subsidies

- Politics play an important part in subsidization.

- the left is more in favor of having subsidized industries.

- the right feels that industry should stand on its own without public funds.


Free trade

The unrestricted purchase and sale of goods and services between countries without the imposition of constraints such as:

- tariffs
- quotas
- duties

Free trade has let formerly insular economies like China and India expand at faster growth rates.

It should enable a nation to generate enough foreign currency to purchase the products or services that it does not produce indigenously.



Government actions and policies that restrict or restrain international trade.

- often done with the intent of protecting local businesses and jobs from foreign competition.


Typical methods of protectionism.

- import tariffs
- quotas
- subsidies
- tax cuts to local businesses


Critics of protectionism

Critics argue that:

- protectionism hurts the people it is intended to protect
- free trade is a superior alternative


Feed-in tariffs

An economic policy created to:

- promote active investment in and production of renewable energy sources.


How do feed-in tariffs work?

They make use of:

- long-term agreements and pricing tied to costs of production for renewable energy producers.

- by offering long-term contracts and guaranteed pricing, producers:

- are sheltered from inherent risks in renewable energy production, allowing for more diversity in energy technologies.



(From Orwell's 1984)
Propagandistic language characterized by euphemism, circumlocution, and the inversion of customary meanings.

It's designed to diminish the range of thought.


Examples of newspeak

- The elimination of certain words or the removal of unorthodox meanings from certain words.

- the enforced substitution of one word for another (uncold instead of warm).

- interchangeability of the parts of speech, so that any word in the vocabulary could be used as verb, adjective, noun, or adverb. (The word "cut" being removed and replaced with the word "knife". It becomes "She knifed the bread").

- the creation of words for political purposes - "goodthink" means to think in an orthodox manner).


What 3 branches is semiotics divided into?

- pragmatics (deals with causal relations between words or symbols and their users)

- semantics (aka "significs" - relations between signs and what they denote)

- syntactics (aka "logical syntax" - deals with the formal properties of languages and systems of symbols)


How much of the Federal Govt's discretionary spending goes to the military:



How does Marxism believe we will progress?

It states that in earlier times:

- FIRST, we lived under rulers (kings) who owned everything.

- NEXT, we lived under lords, who owned land with workers who lived on them (serfs).

- NOW, we live under governments that allow many people to own property.

- they say eventually, we'll live in a society where everyone owns everything communally.


Yellow journalism

A type of journalism that uses shocking headlines that catch people's attention to sell more newspapers.

- often exaggerates facts.


What things make up yellow journalism?

- headlines in huge print meant to scare people, often of news that wasn't very important

- using many pictures or drawings

- using fake interviews (unnamed sources), headlines that didn't tell the whole truth, pseudoscience (fake science), and false information from people who said they were experts

- taking the side of the "underdog" against the system.



British parliament consists of 3 parts:

- the House of Commons (the lower house)
- has most legislative power
- has 650 members
- leader is the Prime Minister

- the lords (the upper house)
- I think it just has the power to reject bills

- the monarch
(king or queen)


States' rights

The rights belonging to various states, especially with reference to the strict interpretation of the constitution, by which all rights not delegated by the constitution to the federal government belong to the states.