Environment/nature IV Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Environment/nature IV Deck (38)
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1

What are animals (and what animals eat) mostly composed of:

- water
- carbon compounds

2

What happened when oxygenic photosynthesis began?

Plants began pumping tons oxygen into the atmosphere.

- this led to the creation of the ozone layer.

3

What happened as a result of the creation of the ozone layer?

- life no longer had to hide from the sun, as it generates not only visible light, but also:

- ultraviolet radiation

- after the creation of the ozone layer, the sun's deadliest rays got blocked.

4

What was the "hole" in the ozone layer?

This had nothing to do with global warming.

- it was about rising use of chlorofluorocarbons (CFC), or aerosol sprays.

5

What helped eliminate CFC use in the 80s?

President Reagan signing the Montreal Protocol, which banned CFCs.

6

During which era did the creatures die that we now mine for fossil fuels?

The Carboniferous (later part of the Paleozoic era)

- animals from this era sank down into swamp beds and became peat.

- they cooked in the earth for millions of years.

- as they cooked, they sank deeper underground.

- they then became rocks laden with carbon, or hydrocarbon. Fossils.

7

Tragedy of the commons

"Individual self-interest can lead to bad outcomes for the group as a whole".

- that which is common to the greatest number has the least care bestowed upon it.

- self-interest leads people to pick up dog shit in their own yard, but not in the public park.

8

Carbon cycle

Every year:

- 80 billion tons of atmospheric carbon dissolves in seawater.

- 80 billion tons returns to the atmosphere through out gassing.

- about 120 billion tons of carbon is sucked in by plants through photosynthesis.

- about 120 billion tons returns to the atmosphere through: fire, decomposition, and respiration.

(this is crucial because animals and what they eat is mostly composed of: water and carbon compounds)

9

Matter

The material substance that constitutes:

- the observable universe

10

At the most fundamental level, what is matter composed of?

Elementary particles called:

- quarks

and

- leptons

11

Quark

An elementary subatomic particle.

- interacts by means of the strong force.

12

Strong force

(aka "nuclear force")
fundamental interaction of nature that acts between subatomic particles of matter.

- it binds quarks together to make protons and neutrons.

13

How is matter constructed?

Quarks or leptons combine into >

Protons and neutrons and (along with electrons) form >

Atoms of the elements of the periodic table such as >

(H) Hydrogen >

Atoms may further combine into molecules like the water molecule H2O

14

Subatomic particle

(aka "elementary particles")

Self-contained units of matter or energy.

- they are the fundamental components of all matter.

15

Which subatomic particles are the basic atomic building blocks?

- electrons
- protons
- neutrons
- nuclei

16

Which subatomic particles are the building blocks of protons and neutrons?

Quarks

17

Which subatomic particle can be both negatively and positively charged?

Muons

- The positively charged muon is called an antiparticle.

- muons in cosmic radiation are extremely penetrating. They can travel thousands of meters below the earth's surface.

18

Name some other subatomic particles?

How many are there?

- neutrinos
- taus
- photons
- positrons
- gluons

There are over 200 different types.

19

How long do subatomic particles exist?

Depends.

- some only exist for a millionth of a second.

20

Where is the ozone layer?

About 15 miles above the surface of the planet.

21

Inertia

The ability of an ecosystem to resist change.

22

Constancy

The ability of a living system (like a population) to preserve its numbers.

Especially in the face of things like:
- plague
- war
- famine

23

Resilience

An ecosystem's ability to restore itself after suffering outside disturbance.

Example: if a grassland springs back after a fire

24

Herbivore

A plant-eating animal.

25

Food chain

The path that chemical energy takes through an ecosystem.

From:

Sunlight - to >

Producers - to >

Herbivores - to >

Carnivores

(individual food chains connect and branch to form food webs)

26

Food web

The structure within an ecological community that characterizes how animals within the community acquire nutrition.

- producers turn atmospheric carbon into sustenance.
- herbivores consume producers.
- carnivores consume herbivores.

27

Energy in an ecosystem flows from.....?

Producers to consumers

28

The flow or feeding structure in an ecosystem is also called.....?

- Trophic structure.

- each level in the structure is called a trophic level and consists of organisms that are categorized into two groups:
- producers
- consumers

A "food chain" charts the movement of energy from one trophic level to the next.

Food chains in an ecosystem are often related and are grouped into larger structures called food webs.

29

What are the foundation of all food chains in an ecosystem?
Why?

Producers (plants)

- because they are autotrophs (they make their own food without depending on other organisms).

30

Consumers

(aka "heterotrophs")
Organisms that depend on producers to obtain nutrients.