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Flashcards in History V Deck (35)
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French and Indian war ends.

England wins Canada and the French are out of North America


What happened as a result of the French and Indian war?

It doubled Britain's national debt.

To replenish the treasury, England's new king, George III, passed the Stamp Act.


So, in essence, whose military inexperience indirectly caused the American Revolutionary War?

George Washington's


What led to the French and Indian war?

- starting in Quebec in 1608, the French had built a sizable American empire based on the fur trade.

- the English also wanted the fur (it was valuable) and by 1754 there was tension between England and France.

- in 1754, George Washington (then a young Virginia militia leader with orders to protect English trappers and speculators from the French) had his men attack and kill a bunch of French soldiers.

- this ignited the French and Indian war.

- Washington hoped for a promotion but wasn't given one as he was only a militia man. So he ran for the house of Burgesses, carrying a grudge against England.


What did protesters do in response to the stamp act?

Called for a boycott of all British imports.

- for example, anyone caught wearing British woolen would be tarred and feathered.

- this led to colonial women spinning homespun to keep their family clothed.



Thanks to the boycotts the stamp act was repealed.

People celebrated with fireworks



British parliament passed a new tax - "the Townshend Duties", which put taxes on various imports.

- the head customs house was placed in Boston, where it would be sure to provoke violence.

- after people rioted, England sent in their troops, called "Lobsterbacks" after their red coats.

- the Lobsterbacks killed snowball hurling protesters at "Bloody Sunday"


What happened after The Boston Massacre?

Parliament passed a tea tax on imported tea


Committees of Correspondance

Created by Samuel Adams and John Hancock.

- groups of citizens that corresponded about revolutionary ideas and what was happening with England.

- the committees were first only in Boston, but soon spread everywhere.


Patriot riders

Men like Paul Revere, who carried news about things happening with England.


Who did George Washington want to kick out of the American revolutionary army?


They protested till he let them in


What was unique about Thomas Jefferson's Declaration of Independence?

- It stated that all men were created equal
- stated that the people had a right to choose its own government


What happened soon after the Declaration of Independence was signed?

Benjamin Franklin sailed to France and convinced them to give us aid covertly, which soon turned overt, as they wanted to see the British smashed.


Treaty of Paris

British surrender from the American Revolutionary War.



Articles of confederation

First constitution of the 13 American states.

- adopted in 1781

- it was simply a legislature, with no power to tax or regulate commerce.

- replaced in 1789 by the Constitution of the United States. (articles of confederation was problematic in that it prevented congress from regulating commerce or collecting taxes)


Soul train

During colonial American times, wagon trains headed west to looking for plots of land to live on.

The last wagon(s) in the train were always the slaves. So, they never knew where they were going.

- it was called the "soul train"


Whose opportunism caused the American Revolutionary War?

George Washington's

- when he was just the leader of a group of Virginia militia men, he was given orders by the British to protect English fur traders from the French, who also had a fur trade.

- instead, looking to impress the English and get a military promotion, he ordered his militia to attack and slaughter the first group of French soldiers they saw that outnumbered them (even though England wasn't at war with France).

- his action sparked the French and Indian war (war between the French and Britain)

- Washington expected to be promoted but England didn't want some militia man. Annoyed, Washington ran for the House of Burgesses (first American democratic institution). He was basically an opportunist.

- the French and Indian war went on for 6 years and doubled England's debt.

- to replenish the treasury after the war, newly crowned King George III passed the Stamp Act on English colonists, which was the first of several duties that led to the Boston Tea Party, that led to the American revolutionary war.


What was the turning point in the American Revolutionary War?

The battle of Saratoga

- 7000 redcoats trying to get south from Canada were stopped and defeated by American guerrillas.

- broke the British spirit.



British soldier during the American Revolutionary War.


Valley forge

US General George Washington's Pennsylvania winter quarters.

- they nearly starved and froze to death.


When was the articles of confederation revised?

- 1787

- businessmen, bankers, and lawyers changed it.

- they turned it into the United States constitution.



Men who re-wrote the articles of confederation as the United States Constitution.

They were:

- George Washington (who was put on the $1 bill)
- Alexander Hamilton (put on the $10 bill)
- Ben Franklin (put on the $5 bill)
- Thomas Jefferson was not present (so they stuck him on the $2, which no one ever uses)


What was the Framers' problem in creating a government?

They believed in a republican govt (representatives who govern are voted in by the electorate), but they didn't believe in strict democracy (all policy decisions decided by referendum) because:

- it gave too much power to the poor

They believed in private wealth, but they knew how the rich could hog power at public cost.


How did the framers decide to construct the govt?

- They kept the articles of confederations' legislature but made it revolving so people were voted in every few years.

- then they shrank down the legislature to make it one of 3 branches of government.

- They called this legislature on the bottom "The House if Representatives" (or "Lower House")

- on top of the Lower House were stacked the Senate, the Executive, and the Judiciary.

- by splitting government apart, it kept any single branch from becoming too powerful ("checks and balances")


How did the new govt (created by the constitution) deal with slavery?

- The 5 southern states (a minority) wanted a guarantee that the northern states wouldn't abolish slavery.

- anxious to avoid civil war, the north agreed to some concessions.

- So, southern whites were given over representation in the House of Representatives, by allowing three-fifths of blacks to be counted on top of the white population.

- the north also promised to return any escaped slaves to the south.

- in return, southerners in congress agreed to a ban on slavery in the future states north of the Ohio River, provided that the number of states there was held to three (Ohio, Illinois, Indiana).

- this was The Compromise if 1787

(This allowed the slave trade to continue until at least 1808)


Framers's basic framework of the constitution

- Negotiates treaties
- commands armed forces
- enforces laws
- makes bureaucracy
(Power over judiciary: appoints judges)
(Power over legislature: can veto bills)

- tries federal cases (you can always appeal to the Supreme Court)
(Power over legislature: rules on constitutionality of laws)
(Power over executive: rules on legality of executive actions)

Legislature (aka "Congress". Consists of the House of Representatives - "the upper house" and the Senate - "the lower house"):
- writes and passes all laws
(Power over Judiciary: creates inferior courts)
(Power over executive: May override votes. May impeach President. Confirms presidential appointments)


Who was elected as the first president under the newly framed US Constitution (making him our first official president)?

George Washington

- he was a General during the revolutionary war and was a war hero.


What are the different eras in American history?

Pre-Columbian era (thousands of years until 1492):
- era up until Columbus landed in 1492.
- only native Americans lived here

Colonial America: (1585-1763):
- From the first English attempt at colonization in Roanoke
- until the end of the French and Indian war when the King issued the Stamp Act, which sparked the revolutionary war.

American Revolution (1763-1781)
- to recoup debt from the French and Indian war England begins levying taxes on colonists, who revolt.
- aided by the French, Americans defeat the Brits at Yorktown. Independence for the US!

The Federal Period (1781-1815)
- the colonies tossed out the articles of confederation and drafted the US constitution.
- this era ends with the war of 1812 being fought and ended with the Treaty of Ghent

Expansion, Industrialization, Slavery (1815-1861)
- federalists fade away, leaving the Monroe doctrine, non-intervention, and domestic expansion
- industrial revolution
- ends with the gold rush bringing people west, slaughtering Indians along the way

The Mexican American War (1846-1848)
- American settlers swarm into Texas (what Monroe Doctrine???) and we claim it as part of the US
- treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo yields Arizona, California, New Mexico, Nevada, Utah.

Civil War (1861-1865)


French and Indian war


- took place in what is now the US and Canada.
- it was between the French (and their Indian allies) and the British with British colonists (and their Indian allies).


What were the British and French fighting over in the French and Indian war?

both sides wanted the Ohio country:

- the land between the Appalachian Mountains and the Mississippi River - from the Great Lakes to the Gulf of Mexico

- they wanted it because it was crucial to the fur trade (beaver pelts) and they wanted it for future settlements.


How did France and England try to claim land in the French and Indian war?

England and France both used Native American claims to try and take the land.

- the British said Ohio belonged to their Iroquois Indians

- the French said it belonged to their Hurons

- neither side asked what the people of Ohio country might want


What were the original 13 colonies organized as under the articles of confederation?

A confederation (a group of countries that, by treaty, give some of their powers to a central government)

- it gave all power to the individual states and very little to the central government.

- it only lasted 6 years, and it had no president.

- when it was unable to stop things like Shays' Rebellion, people figured the Articles of Confederation wasn't working.


Shays' Rebellion


- rebellion in Massachusetts named after Daniel Shays (a veteran of the American revolution).

- Shays led the rebels, known as "Regulars", who were mostly poor farmers angered by their debt and taxes. Many had fought in the revolutionary war.

- the farmers couldn't pay their taxes and they were afraid of going to jail or losing their farms.


What did the farmers do during Shays' rebellion?

- They attempted to stop courts from taking property from indebted farmers by forcing the closure of courts in Massachusetts.

- they believed they were acting in the spirit of the revolution that overthrew the British 10 years prior.

- they used "liberty poles" and "liberty trees" to symbolize their cause.

- Shays' revolution grew nearly into the size of an army.


What fears arose during Shays' rebellion?

The rebellion made people worried that the American revolution's democratic impulse had gotten out of hand.