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Flashcards in Politics Deck (63)
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1

Where is it written that expropriation is legal?

- the fifth amendment to the constitution states that private property can be taken by the govt without the property owner's consent as long as there is just compensation.

2

Expropriation examples?

- In the 1970s, Salvadore Allende, in Chile, took several US businesses.

- (Expropriation often happens when a country takes a foreign business)

3

What is eminent domain?

- allows the govt to seize privately-owned property without their consent. (to be used for govt purposes)

- the person must be compensated (according to US law)

4

What is nationalization?

- the opposite of privatization.

- when a company goes from being privately-owned to being government- owned.

- the business-owners aren't always compensated.

- most common in developing countries subject to frequent regime changes. New dictators or presidents will nationalize industry to expand their wealth and power.

- has rarely happened in the US.

5

Give an example of US nationalization.

When the govt took over airport security after 9/11.

6

What is deregulation?

The reduction or elimination of govt power in a particular industry.

7

What is Medicare?

- A federal health care program attached to social security.

- available to all US citizens 65 or older. Also covers people with certain disabilities.

- pays health care coverage for hospital, medical, and some prescription drugs.

- paid for by payroll taxes and deductions from social security.

8

What is congress?

- the legislative branch of the US govt.

- balances out the power of the executive and judicial branches.

- congress lays and collects taxes, borrows money, regulates commerce, and declares war.

- impacts the economic world directly so every large industry has lobbyists in Washington pushing their agendas.

9

What is bicameral?

- Legislature consisting of two separate chambers: House of Representatives and the sensitive.

- US govt is bicameral (at both the state and national level).

10

What is expropriation?

- the act of taking privately-owned property by a government to be used for the benefit of the public

- in the US the govt. has the right to take property through eminent domain.

11

Plurality

a.k.a. relative majority

In the context of voting refers to the largest number of votes received by one candidate out of the entire group of candidates.

12

What is the presidential nomination process?

Voters cast ballots for members of the electoral college, who then in turn elect their party's presidential nominee.

13

State Legislature

Legislative body of any of the 50 states.

They are bicameral (consist of senate and House of Representatives)

State legislature performs state duties at the state level in the same way Congress performs duties at the national level.

The governor is the state legislative officer (president is the national legislative officer)

14

How does state legislative lawmaking take place?

Begins with the introduction of a Bill in either the house or senate.

Bills have to get approved by each house and then be signed by the governor to an Act (a law).

15

Incumbent

Person currently holding office.

16

Gubernatorial

Of or relating to a state governor or the office of state governor.

17

Absolute majority

a.k.a. simple majority

When a candidate has over half the votes.

18

Indirect vote

What the US presidential election is.

Voters do not directly vote the President and VP into office. Voters cast ballots for members of the electoral college. These electors directly elect the President and VP.

19

Is the US a democracy?

No, it's a republic. Because we don't directly elect our leaders. We have an indirect vote.

Also, because a democracy is technically when all policy issues are are settled by referendums and direct votes where the entire electorate decides.

20

Magna Carta

Signed 1215

Agreement that King John was forced to sign. He was a tyrant known for arresting people for no reason.

Magna Carta established habeas corpus (illegal to arrest people without cause or in secret, guaranteed due process).

The right to a fair trial (established in the Magna Carta) was written into the 5th amendment.

21

What countries were members of the Warsaw Pact?

Bulgaria
Czechoslovakia
East Germany
Hungary
Poland
Romania
Soviet Union
Albania

22

NAFTA

North American Free Trade Agreement

A regulation implemented in 1994 by President Bill Clinton

Eliminated tariffs between US, Canada, and Mexico.

Meant to encourage economic activity and create jobs.

23

Where do one-fourth of all US imports and exports come from and go to?

Canada and Mexico.

What we import from Canada and Mexico: crude oil, machinery, gold, vehicles, produce, livestock, processed foods.

What we export to Canada and Mexico: vehicle parts, machinery, plastics, minerals).

24

Social conservative

Advocates positions similar to the religious right:
pro-life, anti-gay marriage, etc

25

Fiscal conservative

Someone who likes lower govt spending and taxes.

They want federal/state/local govt spending to be a smaller percentage of GDP than a fiscal liberal.

26

Social liberal

Pro-choice, pro gay marriage, etc

27

Oligarchy

Form of government where power is vested in a few.

28

Theocracy

Govt under the immediate direction of God (or priests or ministers doing God's will).

29

Health insurance marketplace

a.k.a. Health insurance exchange

Created in 2010.

Part of the Affordable Care Act, (Obamacare), President Barack Obama's health care reform agenda.

Organizations that facilitate structured markets for purchasing health coverage.

There are four kinds (based on how much of your health care they cover): bronze, silver, gold, platinum.

30

Obamacare

The affordable care act

Signed into law in 2010.

Barack Obama's health care reform agenda.

Has three main parts:

1). Expansion of Medicaid
2). Establishment of health care exchanges
3). Prohibiting insurance companies from denying coverage due to pre-existing conditions.