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Flashcards in History: Chapter 24 test Deck (22):
1

President Nixon adopted a policy known as ___ in order to reduce the size and power of the federal government.

New Federalism

2

In 1973, the OPEC nations cut off their supply of ___ to the United States.

oil

3

Nixon’s visit to ___ in 1972 to begin normalizing relations was a reversal of previous American policy established in 1949.

China

4

Nixon’s closest advisers included H. R. Halderman, John Mitchell, and ___.

John Ehrlichman

5

In the event known as ___, Nixon ordered Attorney General
Richardson to fire the special prosecutor investigating the Watergate break-in.

the Saturday Night Massacre

6

When Nixon resigned, ___ became president.

Gerald Ford

7

President Carter’s foreign policy was marked by a commitment to ___.

human rights

8

The Camp David Accords were an agreement between ___ and Israel.

Egypt

9

After the publication of Rachel Carson’s Silent Spring, the effects of ___ became an increasing concern to many Americans.

pesticides

10

The U.S. government established the ___ to set and enforce pollution standards.

Environmental Protection Agency

13

How many electoral votes did Carter win?

297

14

What percent of the popular vote did Ford receive?

48.0

15

Which of the following states did Carter win?

Texas

16

How many popular votes went to neither Ford nor Carter?

1,577,000

17

By how many electoral votes did Carter win the election?

57

18

In 1949, how many federal employees were there for every 1,000 Americans?

13.9

19

What was the total of state and local government expenditures in 1976?

$185 billion

20

Which category saw a decrease from 1949 to 1976?

federal public sector employees per 1,000 people

21

In 1949, what percent of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) were the combined federal, state, and local expenditures?

22.1

22

Which of the following categories showed the largest percentage change?

total dollar expenditures in billions

23

How did Nixon and Carter differ in their approaches to foreign policy?What were some results of each president’s foreign policies? Think About:
• the philosophy of realpolitik
• détente with the Soviet Union and China
• relationship between human rights policy and foreign relations
• failure of SALT II treaty ratification

Nixon made the policy realpolitik. It was based on consideration of power. But kissinger believed in evaluating nation’s power. he argued that if a country was weak, it is more practical to ignore that country, even if it was communist. Nixon and Kissinger both had the same belief in this policy, and because of that, it lead to the policy they made called detente.

Detente is a policy aimed at easing cold war tensions. But since nixon was rising in politics and he was a strong anti-communist, it was startling to communist china. The people in the united states didn’t recognize the new communist china so nixon went there to change the fact that they were unfamiliar with it. In going to china, he wanted to resolve years of conflict between them and the soviet union. And it became a huge success for the american public when the two nations agreed that neither of them would try to dominate the pacific and that they would both would cooperate in settling disputes peacefully.

When jimmy carter took office, detente reached a high point. But he rejected the policy of realpolitik. He believed that the countries that violated their human rights should have their aid cut off and normal regulations altered. And that caused the breakdown of america’s relations with the soviet union.

In June 1979, President Carter and soviet premier Leonid Brezhnev met. They signed the SALT II Treaty which provided limits on the number of strategic weapons and nuclear missile launchers that each side could produce. But it met sharp opposition in the senate because the critics argued that it would put the US at a military disadvantage. Then when the soviets invaded Afghanistan, president carter got angry about it and didn’t fight for the SALT II agreement and that treaty died.

That is how Nixon and Carter differed in the approaches to foreign policies and what resulted from it. Nixon’s approach cause peace between the US and the soviet union. But when Carter became president and made changes between what nixon did, it caused great problems between them. And instead of things still being peaceful, he cause them to fight and treaties being broken.

24

Consider the factors that led to the end of each of these presidencies: Nixon, Ford, Carter. Choose two presidents and compare and contrast how their
terms ended. Think About:
• Nixon’s involvement in Watergate
• Ford’s economic policy and his pardon of Nixon
• Carter’s economic and foreign policy

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